The relocation of a capital city is a complex urban decision with various dimensions and consequences for both the old and new capital. It can be driven by political, economic, societal, and other factors, and has urban and architectural implications for residents. These include factors such as location, planning, building design, the purpose of the old capital, climatic conditions, and separating the political/administrative hubs from cultural and economic cities.
In light of the ongoing urban discourse, countries like Egypt are constructing a new capital city to alleviate population and urban stress on Cairo. Similarly, Indonesia is planning a new capital in response to challenges faced by Jakarta, such as pollution, traffic congestion, and rising sea levels. It is valuable to examine other countries in the global south that have relocated their capital cities, noting the architectural and urban lessons learned from their experiences.