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Susanna Moreira

Graduating in Architecture and Urbanism from the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA) and intern at ArchDaily Brasil —looking for crossings between architecture, art and cities.

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Architecture and Territory: Houses in the Five Regions of Brazil

Italian architect Vittorio Gregotti, author of The Territory of Architecture (1966), believed that architecture had its origin when mankind placed the first stone on the ground. Recognizing a place is the first step towards an architectural project, whether intentionally or not. Understanding the project's location and its context is the basis for many design choices and is, therefore, a key aspect in the field of architecture.

Do Bomba House / Sotero Arquitetos. Image: © Leonardo FinottiGlass House / Ângela Roldão Arquitetura. Image: © Jomar BragançaCavalcante House / BLOCO Arquitetos. Image: © Joana FrançaModico House / Atelier Branco Arquitetura. Image: © Federico Cairoli+ 41

Lighting and Visual Comfort Solutions in Residential Projects

Solar radiation is one of the most important criteria in architectural projects, as it impacts several decisions ranging from the orientation of the building on the site to the choice of windows and doors. Therefore, to ensure the quality of lighting and visual comfort in building interiors, it is crucial to study the sun path and the quantity of sunlight in each given space.

NB Residence / Jacobsen Arquitetura. Image: © Fernando Guerra | FG+SGOwnerless House nº 01 / Vão. Image: © Pedro KokKS Residence / Arquitetos Associados. Image: © Joana FrançaAtlântica House / AR Arquitetos. Image: © Federico Cairoli+ 7

How to Ensure Comfort and Well-Being in Small Spaces?

While some aspects of comfort and well-being in an indoor environment are related to external factors, such as natural lighting and ventilation, others are directly associated with the interior layout and the sensations created by architecture in the people living in that space.

It is always challenging to balance all of the elements that can provide greater comfort and well-being in interior design, particularly in small environments that must be fully optimized since it is not always possible to create large openings to the outside or even to accommodate the whole architectural program in a conventional manner.

Apartment in Saint Andreu / Oriol Garcia Muñoz. Image: © Aitor EstévezAppartement Spectral / BETILLON / DORVAL‐BORY. Courtesy of BETILLON / DORVAL‐BORYYojigen Poketto / elii. Image: © Miguel de Guzmán + Rocío Romero | ImagenSubliminalU-shape room / Atelier tao+c. Image: © Fangfang Tian+ 15

How the Star System and Sexism Have Erased the Contribution of Women Architects in Intimate-Creative Partnerships

While women in architecture already face more obstacles than men in their careers, as proven by studies and research from across the globe, the disparities become even more obvious when it comes to partnerships involving both genders. In the history of the profession, there are many examples of office partnerships or collaborations that reveal the discrepancies in terms of recognition achieved by the work, reflected in awards, honors, citations, and salaries.

Many of these collaborations are between intimate couples who, as in any business partnership, design and make work decisions together. But in the particular case of architects in a heterosexual relationship, the role of the "wife" seems to have prevailed over that of collaborator, architect, or equal partner on many occasions.

Vertical Urbanization As Seen From Above

Because of the decrease in the availability of land area and the ever-increasing price per square meter, cities often tend to grow vertically. When we picture large metropolitan areas, we almost always imagine high-rise buildings, and the recognizable skyline becomes an icon that immediately evokes the places in which they are located.

New York, United States. Created by @overview, source imagery @maxartechnologiesDubai, United Arab Emirates. Created by @dailyoverviewSydney, Australia. Copyright: @tiarnehawkinsShanghai, China. Source imagery: @planetlabs+ 9

Vertical Greenery: Impacts on the Urban Landscape

With the increase of urban density and the decrease in the availability of land, the verticalization phenomenon has intensified in cities all over the world. Similar to the vertical growth of buildings — which is often a divisive issue for architects and urban planners — many initiatives have sought in the vertical dimension a possibility to foster the use of vegetation in urban areas. Vertical gardens, farms and forests, rooftop vegetable gardens, and elevated structures for urban agriculture are some of the many possibilities of verticalization in plant cultivation, each with its unique characteristics and specific impacts on the city and its inhabitants.

But is verticalization the ideal solution to make cities greener? And what are the impacts of this action in urban areas? Furthermore, what benefits of urban plants are lost when adopting vertical solutions instead of promoting its cultivation directly on the ground?

Courtesy of IlimelgoOne Central Park / Ateliers Jean Nouvel. Image courtesy of Frasers Property Australia and Sekisui House Australia. Image © Murray FredericksJapan introduces urban vegetable gardens in train stations. Courtesy of popupcity.net Bosco Verticale / Boeri Studio. Image: © Paolo Rosselli+ 7

Monochrome Interiors: Color at the Forefront

We know that colors can influence our sensations and cause different perceptions of a space, which confirms the benefits of designing a consistent color palette and its importance in architectural projects. The impact of color on a space and on the people who use it becomes even more perceptible when the whole environment is covered with just one color. In these cases, the selected shade can be applied to countless architectural elements. Floors, ceilings, walls, furniture, or even pipes and electrical conduits can have a specific hue to match the monochromatic environment.

Objective Subject Offices / GRT Architects. Image: © Nicole FranzenPP Nutritionist Office / LANZA Atelier. Image: © Luis YoungAmerican School of Kosovo / Maden Group. Image: © Leonit IbrahimiAxur Cyber Inspection / Arquitetura Nacional. Image: © Marcelo Donadussi+ 11

Corviale, a One-Kilometer Residential Complex in Rome

The Corviale housing complex, located in the south-western periphery of Rome, was designed in the 1970s as a solution to the growing number of dormitory districts in the Roman suburbs, caused by the significant population increase between the 1950s and 1970s - when the population grew from approximately 1.6 million to 2.7 million inhabitants - followed by suburban sprawl.

The project, also known as Serpentone because of its huge proportions, was developed by a team of architects under the leadership of Mario Fiorentino between 1972 and 1974. Construction took place between 1973 and 1982, but the original plan to use the fourth floor of the main building for commercial uses, services, and common areas, was dropped because the contractor went bankrupt. The floor was eventually taken over by informal settlements, and this event is considered to be the root of the problems with this emblematic project in the history of housing in Italy.

Corviale in 1988. Image via Wikimedia CommonsCorviale in 1988 seen from Via Poggio Verde. Image via Wikimedia CommonsCorviale in 1988 seen from Via Poggio Verde. Image via Wikimedia CommonsCorviale in 1988 seen from Via Poggio Verde. Image via Wikimedia Commons+ 10

Kevin Lynch's Images of the City Through Aerial Photography

“There seems to be a public image of any given city which is the overlap of many individual images," American urban planner Kevin Lynch once said. "Or perhaps there is a series of public images, each held by some significant number of citizens,” he added.

Following this remark, in his book "The Image of the City" (1960), Lynch begins an analysis around the elements that constitute what he considers to be the image of the city. While introducing, describing, and illustrating these elements as physical, perceptible objects, Lynch considers that other non-physical factors such as history, function, or even the name of the city also play a significant role in the construction of this imageability.

Barcelona, Spain. Created by @benjaminrgrant. Source imagery: @digitalglobeLucca, Italy. Created by @overview. Source imagery: @maxartechnologiesMadrid, Spain. Created by @dailyoverview. Source imagery: @maxartechnologiesStatue of Liberty, New York. Copyright: @jeffreymilstein+ 12

Urban Planning and Water Bodies: Florida’s Aquatic Land Cover

Delray Beach, Florida. Created by @dailyoverview, source imagery @maxartechnologiesBoynton Beach, Florida. Created by @dailyoverview, source imagery: @airbus_space © CNES 2020, Distribution Airbus DSIsland Walk, Naples, Florida. Created by @dailyoverview, source imagery: @nearmapVenetian Islands, Miami Beach, Florida. Created by @dailyoverview, source imagery @maxartechnologies+ 8

The state of Florida, in the United States, is bordered to the south, east, and west by the Atlantic Ocean, with a coastline of over two thousand kilometers in length, and is characterized by extensive areas of lakes, rivers, and ponds. Land booms during the early and mid-20th century resulted in the development of new communities and the expansion of low-density suburbia across many parts of the state, which frequently incorporated the abundant water resources, sometimes failing in their efforts.

Brazilian Interiors With Exposed Structures

Many architects tend to prefer using materials and architectural elements in their natural or raw state. It is common to remove ceilings and finishings, especially in renovation projects, to expose a building's structure. This process of reclaiming the natural materials of construction - without incorporating elements to cover the framework, pipes, tubes, and cables - transforms these spaces into places that have nothing to hide.

Higienópolis Apartment / Teresa Mascaro. Image: © Pedro MascaroExpansion of Apartment in Brazil Building / Alvorada Arquitetos. Image: © Pedro KokApartment AMRA7 / Piratininga Arquitetos Associados + Bruno Rossi Arquitetos. Image: © Nelson KonApartment 3 Zero 8 / Debaixo do Bloco Arquitetura. Image: © Joana França+ 13

Architecture and Urban Planning Exhibitions: What Can They Tell Us About the Future of Cities?

Whether as a retrospective, a collection of contemporary works, or a compilation of prospects for the future - and all the other possibilities in between -, architecture and urban planning exhibitions have played an important role in shaping the future of cities over the decades. These events are often open to the public, reaching many people who don't necessarily have a background in the field, thus providing great environments to explore a collective view of the future of architecture and cities.

"Elements" Exhibition / Rem Koolhaas & AMO. Image © Nico SaiehModern Architecture: International Exhibition [MoMA Exh. #15, February 9-March 23, 1932] Photo: Modern Architecture, International Exhibition. 1932. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Photographic Archive"Stadium" Exhibition at the 2018 Venice Biennale / Alejandra Celedón. Photo: © Laurian Ghinitoiu"Refugee Heritage" Exhibition at the 2019 Chicago Architecture Biennial / Ana María León and Andrew Herscher. Photo: © Laurian Ghinitoiu+ 6

What Is Open-Source Urbanism?

Many initiatives around the world have lately focused on ways to improve the urban environment through the actions of their inhabitants, be it in designing, building, or managing projects. Open-source urbanism is a collaborative approach that seeks to enhance the citizens' capacity for change.

An in-depth look at the concept of open-source urbanism is happening nowadays, and one can find many different definitions and approaches to it. But overall, open-source urbanism can be defined as the co-production of open-source common urban assets.

Image © Brokenlifts.org Licensed under CC BY 2.0© María Carmona© El Campo de Cebada© El Campo de Cebada+ 6

Architecture and Public Spaces: 11 Skate Parks Around the World

Skateboarding is often associated with the use of public spaces such as streets, squares, and sidewalks and has become a sport that blends into everyday life in the cities. Although skateboarding is sometimes considered marginalized, because of the dispute over public spaces, it allows underused places such as areas under or near overpasses to be revamped for practicing sports. Many sports centers have been incorporating skate parks into their programs, showcasing very unique designs.

Brazilian Houses: 14 Homes with Wooden Window Frames

Wood is a material naturally associated with beauty, versatility, and comfort and is used in many different ways in architecture, from flooring to roofing. These qualities also stand out when used in window frames.

House in Serra do Cipó / TETRO Arquitetura. Image: © Jomar BragançaHouse CE / Seferin Arquitetura. Image: © Marcelo DonadussiBrazilian Houses: 14 Homes with Wooden Window FramesHouse in the Blue Wild / Studio Carlito e Renata Pascucci. Image © Monica Antunes+ 15

The Versatility of Wooden Staircases in Portuguese Houses

The presence of different ground levels requires solutions to connect them, either because of a need to adapt to the terrain or any other factor that leads to the verticalization of a building. Staircases serve the purpose of connecting the various floors and creating the building's dynamics through many different shapes, designs, and materials. When made of wood, they can also add a variety of colors and textures that contribute to the uniqueness of this element.