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Eero Saarinen

This Week in Architecture: Our Faith in Design, from McDonalds' Golden Arches to Churches in Kerala

09:30 - 24 August, 2018
This Week in Architecture: Our Faith in Design, from McDonalds' Golden Arches to Churches in Kerala, © Stephanie Zoch
© Stephanie Zoch

As August draws to a close and our holidays - be they from work or school - already start to feel like distant memories, perhaps it's a good moment to reflect on our faith in what we do. Sometimes design affords us the ability to oversee massive and exciting change. Sometimes projects don't work out, despite our best efforts. And sometimes, design isn't as capable of making change as we believe it to be. This week's stories touched on our faith in design in a range of ways, from the literal (such as the bright churches of Kerala) to the more abstract (how much good taste in fast food design actually equates to good tastes.) Read on for this week's review. 

Courtesy of Foster + Partners © Jeroen Musch, Mei Architects and Planners Courtesy of Ennead Architects © DBOX for Foster + Partners + 9

Eliel and Eero Saarinen: The Sweeping Influence of Architecture's Greatest Father-Son Duo

09:30 - 20 August, 2018
St Louis Gateway Arch. Image © Flickr user jeffnps licensed under CC BY 2.0
St Louis Gateway Arch. Image © Flickr user jeffnps licensed under CC BY 2.0

It is rare for a father and son to share the same birthday. Even rarer is it for such a duo to work in the same profession; rarer still for them both to achieve international success in their respective careers. This, however, is the story of Eliel and Eero Saarinen, the Finnish-American architects whose combined portfolio tells of the development of modernist architectural thought in the United States. From Eliel’s Art Nouveau-inspired Finnish buildings and modernist urban planning to Eero’s International Style offices and neo-futurist structures, the father-son duo produced a matchless body of work culminating in two individual AIA Gold Medals.

© MWAA <a href='https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficheiro:FirstChristianChurch.jpg'>Photo by Greg Hume</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/deed.pt'>CC BY-SA 2.5</a> © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/gabyu/305710396'>Ezra Stoller via Flikr user gabyu</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/'>CC BY-ND 2.0</a> © <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Helsinki_Railway_Station_20050604.jpg'>Revontuli</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en'>CC BY-SA 3.0</a> + 22

How Surrealism Has Shaped Contemporary Architecture

09:30 - 6 June, 2018
1974 installation of <em>Mae West’s Face which May be Used as a Surrealist Apartment</em> by Salvador Dali. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/alextorrenegra/4991542223'>Flickr user Torrenega</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a>
1974 installation of Mae West’s Face which May be Used as a Surrealist Apartment by Salvador Dali. Image © Flickr user Torrenega licensed under CC BY 2.0

In 1924 writer André Breton penned the Surrealist Manifesto, which called to destabilize the divides between dreams and reality, between objectivity and subjectivity. For many architects who had been—and continue to be—interested in the fundamental role of the built environment, Breton’s surrealist thinking provided a rich resource to examine the role architecture plays in forming reality. Since then, from Salvador Dali and Frederick Kiesler to Frank Gehry, Surrealism has profoundly shaped architecture in the 20th century.

Hotel Transformation of Saarinen's TWA Terminal Tops Out

12:00 - 17 December, 2017
Hotel Transformation of Saarinen's TWA Terminal Tops Out, TWA Hotel flag and American Flag raised to the top of the north hotel structure. Image © Max Touhey
TWA Hotel flag and American Flag raised to the top of the north hotel structure. Image © Max Touhey

Construction on the transformation of Eero Saarinen’s iconic TWA Flight Center into the new TWA Hotel has hit major milestone, as the project has now topped out.

Future TWA Hotel Grand Ballroom. Image © Max Touhey Workers and partners fill the Saarinen terminal building at the topping out event. Image © Max Touhey MCR CEO Tyler Morse and Turner Construction's Rick Faustini and Gary McAssey standing next to the north hotel tower crane with ceremonial flags. Image © Max Touhey Workers pour concrete on top floor of north hotel structure. Image © Max Touhey + 11

The Architect as Educator: Remembering Gunnar Birkerts

10:30 - 23 November, 2017

Gunnar Birkerts, Latvian-born architect and educator, passed away on August 15, 2017, at the age of 92. A passionate advocate of a creative process he called "organic synthesis," he leaves behind dozens of built works over three continents and influenced hundreds of architectural students and colleagues through his inquiry-based process and dynamic interactions. Eric Hill and John Gallagher, in their AIA Guide to Detroit, said of Birkerts’ architecture:

Each of his works seems to be approached as an opportunity to explore the essence of an architectural problem, resulting in a statement that often exceeds the immediate project.

Gunnar Birkerts in an undated photo. Image via The Republic Corning Fire Station, New York. Image© <a href=“https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brikerts_Corning_Fire_Station.jpg”>Unknown Wikimedia Author</a> licensed under <a href=“https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/“>CC BY 3.0</a> The Latvian National Library (2014). © <a href=“https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Riga_Petrikirche_Blick_vom_Turm_zur_Nationalbibliothek.JPG”>Wikimedia user Zairon</a> licensed under <a href=“https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/“>CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Zairon ederal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, 1973, (now: Marquette Plaza), in its original configuration.. ImageVia <a href=“https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Marquette_Plaza.jpg”>Wikimedia Commons / Historic American Buildings Survey</a> licensed under <a href=“https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/deed.en“>CC0 1.0 (Public Domain)</a> + 4

Architectural Adventures: Detroit—Motor City’s Architectural Revival

15:44 - 16 November, 2017
Architectural Adventures: Detroit—Motor City’s Architectural Revival, WSU McGregor Memorial Conference Center | courtesy of Jeff Dunn
WSU McGregor Memorial Conference Center | courtesy of Jeff Dunn

For most of the 20th century, Detroit was our nation’s economic dynamo. This heritage is reflected in the treasure trove of outstanding historic homes, buildings, and factories that still define the cityscape. While Detroit has struggled into the 21st century, its role as a center for architectural innovation is undiminished. With stunning early 20th-century mansions, grand Art Deco skyscrapers, and surprising mid-century masterpieces, the Motor City has more to offer than most realize. Explore the Cranbrook Academy of Art, Lafayette Park, Eastern Market, private homes, and special projects by local preservation organizations. Learn about how Detroit is rebounding while experiencing the innovative and seminal works of great architects like Eliel Saarinen, Daniel Burnham, Cass Gilbert, John Burgee, Albert Kahn, Minoru Yamasaki, and Mies van der Rohe along the way.

New TWA Lounge Opens as Construction Moves Forward on Hotel Transformation

14:00 - 29 September, 2017
New TWA Lounge Opens as Construction Moves Forward on Hotel Transformation, The TWA lounge at 1WTC. Image © Jesse David Harris
The TWA lounge at 1WTC. Image © Jesse David Harris

A new space has been given a retro makeover while a historic one is racing towards modernization as work continues on the transformation of Eero Saarinen’s iconic TWA Terminal into a luxury hotel and event space.

Just completed is the TWA Lounge, a satellite space for the hotel located on the 86th floor of One World Trade Center. Part gallery, part mock-up, the Lounge space recreates the look and feel of the original terminal down to the smallest detail.

The sunken lounge carpeted in Chili Pepper Red, the signature color created by Saarinen for the TWA Flight Center. The custom Solari© split-flap analog display, manufactured in Udine, Italy, shows flight departures. Image © Emily Gilbert Reception desk modeled after Jet Age city center TWA ticket counters created by iconic mid-century industrial designer Raymond Loewy. Image © Emily Gilbert Hotel rendering. Image Courtesy of MCR Development View of north hotel wing foundation. Image Courtesy of MCR Development + 27

Spotlight: Eero Saarinen

06:00 - 20 August, 2017
Spotlight: Eero Saarinen, TWA Terminal. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/samsebeskazal/10283256224/'>Flickr user samsebeskazal</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/'>CC BY-SA 2.0</a>
TWA Terminal. Image © Flickr user samsebeskazal licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Son of pioneering Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen, Eero Saarinen (August 20, 1910 – September 1, 1961) was not only born on the same day, but carried his father's later rational Art Deco into a neofuturist internationalism, regularly using sweeping curves and abundant glass. Saarinen's simple design motifs allowed him to be incredibly adaptable, turning his talent to furniture design with Charles Eames and producing radically different buildings for different clients. Despite his short career as a result of his young death, Saarinen gained incredible success and plaudits, winning some of the most sought-after commissions of the mid-twentieth century.

North Christian Church, Columbus. Image © Hassan Bagheri TWA Terminal. Image © Cameron Blaylock St Louis Gateway Arch. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/jeffnps/5263761913'>Flickr user jeffnps</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> David S. Ingalls Skating Rink. Image via Wikimedia (public domain) + 15

AD Classics: The Entenza House (Case Study #9) / Charles & Ray Eames, Eero Saarinen & Associates

04:00 - 14 August, 2017
AD Classics: The Entenza House (Case Study #9) / Charles & Ray Eames, Eero Saarinen & Associates, Case Study House No. 9. (1950) / Julius Shulman Photography Archive. Image © J. Paul Getty Trust. Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (2004.R.10)
Case Study House No. 9. (1950) / Julius Shulman Photography Archive. Image © J. Paul Getty Trust. Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (2004.R.10)

Nestled in the verdant seaside hills of the Pacific Palisades in southern California, the Entenza House is the ninth of the famous Case Study Houses built between 1945 and 1962. With a vast, open-plan living room that connects to the backyard through floor-to-ceiling glass sliding doors, the house brings its natural surroundings into a metal Modernist box, allowing the two to coexist as one harmonious space.

Like its peers in the Case Study Program, the house was designed not only to serve as a comfortable and functional residence, but to showcase how modular steel construction could be used to create low-cost housing for a society still recovering from the the Second World War. The man responsible for initiating the program was John Entenza, Editor of the magazine Arts and Architecture. The result was a series of minimalist homes that employed steel frames and open plans to reflect the more casual and independent way of life that had arisen in the automotive age.[1]

Case Study House No. 9. (1950) / Julius Shulman Photography Archive. Image © J. Paul Getty Trust. Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (2004.R.10) Case Study House No. 9. (1950) / Julius Shulman Photography Archive. Image © J. Paul Getty Trust. Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (2004.R.10) Case Study House No. 9. (1950) / Julius Shulman Photography Archive. Image © J. Paul Getty Trust. Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (2004.R.10) Case Study House No. 9. (1950) / Julius Shulman Photography Archive. Image © J. Paul Getty Trust. Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (2004.R.10) + 28

How to Pronounce the Names of 22 Notable Architects

09:30 - 17 April, 2017
How to Pronounce the Names of 22 Notable Architects

There’s no doubt that one of the best things about architecture is its universality. Wherever you come from, whatever you do, however you speak, architecture has somehow touched your life. However, when one unexpectedly has to pronounce a foreign architect’s name... things can get a little tricky. This is especially the case when mispronunciation could end up making you look less knowledgeable than you really are. (If you're really unlucky, it could end up making you look stupid in front of your children and the whole world.)

To help you out, we’ve compiled a list of 22 architects with names that are a little difficult to pronounce, and paired them with a recording in which their names are said impeccably. Listen and repeat as many times as it takes to get it right, and you’ll be prepared for any intellectual architectural conversation that comes your way. 

Eero Saarinen-Designed US Embassy in Oslo to Be Preserved After Sale by Government

12:00 - 26 December, 2016
Eero Saarinen-Designed US Embassy in Oslo to Be Preserved After Sale by Government, US Embassy in Oslo. Designed by Eero Saarinen. Image © Flickr user A.Curell. Licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0
US Embassy in Oslo. Designed by Eero Saarinen. Image © Flickr user A.Curell. Licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0

The Eero Saarinen-designed US Embassy in Oslo is set to be placed under historic preservation orders following the building’s sale by the US government.

The US embassy to Norway since 1959, the building will change hands once staff are moved into the new US embassy building at Huseby, which is expected to complete in early 2017.

New Documentary to Dive into the Life and Works of Eero Saarinen

14:00 - 25 December, 2016
New Documentary to Dive into the Life and Works of Eero Saarinen, © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/jeffnps/5263761913'>Flickr user jeffnps</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a>
© Flickr user jeffnps licensed under CC BY 2.0

Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen will be the focus of the Season 30 Finale of American Masters, the PBS documentary program that highlights the preeminent cultural icons of United States’ history.

Co-produced by Saarinen’s son, Eric, the documentary will dig into the life and work of the visionary architect, covering seminal projects including St. Louis' iconic Gateway Arch, the General Motors Technical Center, New York's TWA Flight Center at John F. Kennedy International Airport, Yale University's Ingalls Rink and Morse and Ezra Stiles Colleges, and Virginia's Dulles Airport.

10 Of The World's Most Spectacular Sacred Spaces

04:00 - 31 August, 2016
10 Of The World's Most Spectacular Sacred Spaces, Courtesy of Flickr user Flemming Ibsen under CC BY-NC 2.0
Courtesy of Flickr user Flemming Ibsen under CC BY-NC 2.0

Religion, in one form or another, has formed the core of human society for much of our history. It therefore stands to reason that religious architecture has found equal prominence in towns and cities across the globe. Faith carries different meanings for different peoples and cultures, resulting in a wide variety of approaches to the structures in which worship takes place: some favor sanctuaries, others places of education and community, while others place the greatest emphasis on nature itself. Indeed, many carry secondary importance as symbols of national power or cultural expression.

AD Classics are ArchDaily's continually updated collection of longer-form building studies of the world's most significant architectural projects. The collection of sacred spaces collated here invariably reveal one desire that remains constant across all faiths and cultures: shifting one’s gaze from the mundane and everyday and fixing it on the spiritual, the otherworldly, and the eternal.

Courtesy of Flickr user Arian Zweger under CC BY 2.0 Courtesy of Flickr user Futo-Tussauds under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 © Expiatory Temple of the Sagrada Familia Courtesy of Flickr user Naoya Fujii under CC BY-NC 2.0 + 10

10 Projects Which Define the Architecture of Transit

04:00 - 29 August, 2016
10 Projects Which Define the Architecture of Transit , Courtesy of Detroit Publishing co. via US Library of Congress (Public Domain)
Courtesy of Detroit Publishing co. via US Library of Congress (Public Domain)

Architecture inherently appears to be at odds with our mobile world – while one is static, the other is in constant motion. That said, architecture has had, and continues to have, a significant role in facilitating the rapid growth and evolution of transportation: cars require bridges, ships require docks, and airplanes require airports.

In creating structures to support our transit infrastructure, architects and engineers have sought more than functionality alone. The architecture of motion creates monuments – to governmental power, human achievement, or the very spirit of movement itself. AD Classics are ArchDaily's continually updated collection of longer-form building studies of the world's most significant architectural projects. Here we've assembled seven projects which stand as enduring symbols of a civilization perpetually on the move.

© Flickr user littleeve Courtesy of Wikimedia user A. Savin under CC BY-SA 3.0 © Satoru Mishima / FOA © Cameron Blaylock + 7

Chipperfield’s Plans for Saarinen’s US Embassy Building in London Under Fire from Preservationists

14:30 - 22 August, 2016
Chipperfield’s Plans for Saarinen’s US Embassy Building in London Under Fire from Preservationists, © DBOX for Qatari Diar
© DBOX for Qatari Diar

British preservation group Twentieth Century Society has publicly denounced plans by David Chipperfield Architects to convert the Eero Saarinen-designed, soon-to-be former US Embassy near London's Grosvenor Square into a "world-class" 137-room hotel. Central to Chipperfield’s plan is an enlargement of the sixth floor to make room for a double-height event space, a move Twenieth Century Society believes will “cause significant and substantial harm to the character of the building.”

AD Classics: TWA Flight Center / Eero Saarinen

03:00 - 13 June, 2016
AD Classics: TWA Flight Center / Eero Saarinen, © Cameron Blaylock
© Cameron Blaylock

Built in the early days of airline travel, the TWA Terminal is a concrete symbol of the rapid technological transformations which were fueled by the outset of the Second World War. Eero Saarinen sought to capture the sensation of flight in all aspects of the building, from a fluid and open interior, to the wing-like concrete shell of the roof. At TWA’s behest, Saarinen designed more than a functional terminal; he designed a monument to the airline and to aviation itself.

This AD Classic features a series of exclusive images by Cameron Blaylock, photographed in May 2016. Blaylock used a Contax camera and Zeiss lenses with Rollei black and white film to reflect camera technology of the 1960s.

© Cameron Blaylock © Cameron Blaylock © Cameron Blaylock © Cameron Blaylock + 26

David Chipperfield Selected to Overhaul Saarinen's US Embassy in London

12:00 - 5 April, 2016
David Chipperfield Selected to Overhaul Saarinen's US Embassy in London, Entrance. Image © DBOX
Entrance. Image © DBOX

UPDATE: The news has now been confirmed. David Chipperfield Architects has been officially selected to convert the US Embassy near London's Grosvenor Square into a "world-class" 137-room hotel, after the building's current occupants relocate. According to a new report from AJ, restaurants, retail, a spa and a 1000-person ballroom will also be included in the design. The first images of the project have now been released.

As reported by the Architects' Journal, David Chipperfield Architects has been selected in an invited competition to remodel the US Embassy in London, once the building's current occupants move into the new embassy building currently being constructed in the Nine Elms. The existing building, a Grade-II listed design by Eero Saarinen dating back to 1960, is set to become a hotel after developers Qatari Diar purchased it in 2009.

Storefront for Art and Architecture’s 2016 Spring Benefit

16:00 - 26 March, 2016
Storefront for Art and Architecture’s 2016 Spring Benefit

The TWA Flight Center, designed by Eero Saarinen, opened to the public in 1962 and has been out of use since 2001. On the evening of Sunday, May 8th, Storefront for Art and Architecture’s 2016 Spring Benefit, BEYOND BORDERS, will be the last public event to be held at the iconic terminal before its redevelopment.

BEYOND BORDERS reflects upon a growing collective consciousness about spaces of difference and the desire to transcend them.