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Sin City Embellishment: Expressive or Kitsch?

12:00 - 23 October, 2016
Sin City Embellishment: Expressive or Kitsch?, Randy’s Donuts shop and sign (a “decorated shed”) by Extra Medium (CC BY 2.0). Image via 99 Percent Invisible
Randy’s Donuts shop and sign (a “decorated shed”) by Extra Medium (CC BY 2.0). Image via 99 Percent Invisible

Though the Las Vegas Strip may be garish to some, with its borderline intrusive décor and “pseudo-historical” architecture, some professional architects, most notably Robert Venturi and Denise Scott-Brown, have become captivated by the “ornamental-symbolic elements” the buildings present. The two architects developed the curious design distinction between a “duck” and a “decorated shed”, depending on the building’s decorative form. In his essay for 99% Invisible, Lessons from Sin City: The Architecture of “Ducks” versus “Decorated Sheds”, Kurt Kohlstedt explores how the architects implemented their knowledge of ornamentation in their own works and began an architectural debate still ongoing today.  

Vanna Venturi House by Robert Venturi featuring playful and non-structural ornamentation. Image via 99 Percent Invisible Longaberger Basket Building image by Barry Haynes (CC BY-SA 3.0). Image via 99 Percent Invisible Guild House by Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates. Image via 99 Percent Invisible “Duck” versus “decorated shed, with Big Duck in Long Island (upper right). Image via 99 Percent Invisible +5

Spotlight: Michael Graves

08:00 - 9 July, 2016
Spotlight: Michael Graves, Portland Building (1982). Image © Wikimedia Commons user Steve Morgan licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
Portland Building (1982). Image © Wikimedia Commons user Steve Morgan licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

As a firm believer in the importance of making good design accessible to the public, Michael Graves (July 9, 1934 – March 12, 2015) produced an enormous body of work that included product design alongside his architecture. Graves brought Postmodernism to the public eye through his emphasis on ornament and aesthetics, and stood firmly behind his design philosophy even as it went out of vogue.

AD Classics: Palazzo dei Congressi / Louis Kahn

14:00 - 11 June, 2016
AD Classics: Palazzo dei Congressi / Louis Kahn, Model of the unrealised Palazzo dei Congressi, Venice. Image © Unidentified Source
Model of the unrealised Palazzo dei Congressi, Venice. Image © Unidentified Source

The city of Venice has been caught in a tug of war between progress and traditionalism for many years, and particularly since the construction of a railroad viaduct in 1846 linked the island city to the Italian mainland for the first time in its history.[1] Over a century later, the Venetian government commissioned Louis Kahn to design a new Palazzo dei Congressi for the city; his proposal, while paying respect to the histories of both the Republic of Venice and a unified Italy, could not escape similar controversy.

Model. Image © Unidentified Source This rough site plan for the building (1968-1974) is currently on the FBI's National Stolen Art File. Image via FBI Concept sketches. Image © Unidentified Source Plan of the Congress Hall +8

AD Classics: Bonnefantenmuseum / Aldo Rossi

08:00 - 30 April, 2016
AD Classics: Bonnefantenmuseum / Aldo Rossi, © James Taylor-Foster
© James Taylor-Foster

Situated in a former industrial district in the southern Dutch city of Maastricht, it’s perhaps fitting that the Bonnefantenmuseum has often been called  a “viewing factory.” The museum, with its ‘E’-shaped plan and distinctive domed tower, is one of the most prominent landmarks along the River Meuse that flows around the city center. Europe’s rich cultural history was a key impetus for architect Aldo Rossi’s design, which employed a number of historical architectural gestures to place the Bonnefantenmuseum within a collapsed European canon.

© James Taylor-Foster © James Taylor-Foster © James Taylor-Foster © James Taylor-Foster +16

Spotlight: James Stirling

06:00 - 22 April, 2016
Spotlight: James Stirling, Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany (1977–1984), 1984. Alastair Hunter, photographer. . Image Courtesy of Canadian Centre for Architecture
Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany (1977–1984), 1984. Alastair Hunter, photographer. . Image Courtesy of Canadian Centre for Architecture

British architect and Pritzker Laureate Sir James Stirling (22 April 1926 – 25 June 1992) grew up in Liverpool, one of the two industrial powerhouses of the British North West, and began his career subverting the compositional and theoretical ideas behind the Modern Movement. Citing a wide-range of influences - from Colin Rowe, a forefather of Contextualism, to Le Corbusier, and from architects of the Italian Renaissance to the Russian Constructivist movement - Stirling forged a unique set of architectural beliefs that manifest themselves in his works. Indeed, his architecture, commonly described as "non-comformist", consistently caused annoyance in conventional circles.

AD Classics: Dutch Parliament Extension / OMA

04:00 - 22 April, 2016
AD Classics: Dutch Parliament Extension / OMA, © OMA
© OMA

Designed shortly before Zaha Hadid left the Office of Metropolitan Architecture (OMA)—led by Rem Koolhaas—to found her practice, Zaha Hadid Architects, the proposed extension for the Dutch Parliament firmly rejects the notion that imitation is the sincerest form of flattery. Rather than mimic the style of the existing historic buildings, OMA elected to pay tribute to the complex’s accretive construction by inserting a collection of visibly postmodern, geometric elements. These new buildings, unapologetic products of the late 1970s, would have served as unmistakable indicators of the passage of time, creating a graphic reminder of the Parliament’s long history.

"The Final Push". Image Courtesy of A.D.A. EDITA Tokyo Co., Ltd. Courtesy of A.D.A. EDITA Tokyo Co., Ltd. "The Podium: Accommodation for Orgies of Speech". Image Courtesy of A.D.A. EDITA Tokyo Co., Ltd. Elevations. Image Courtesy of A.D.A. EDITA Tokyo Co., Ltd. +9

Terry Farrell Among Speakers at Forthcoming Conference on Postmodernism

04:00 - 23 March, 2016
Terry Farrell Among Speakers at Forthcoming Conference on Postmodernism, James Stirling's No.1 Poultry, London. Image © Flickr user merula licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
James Stirling's No.1 Poultry, London. Image © Flickr user merula licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

The British Twentieth Century Society (C20) have announced a forthcoming conference in London on Postmodernism. Speakers including Sir Terry Farrell, Piers Gough and Charles Holland (Ordinary Architecture) will join Alan Powers, Emily Gee and Elain Harwood of Historic England to "raise the profile of Britain’s best Postmodernist buildings following concerns over proposed changes to leading examples of this much maligned style."

These Churches Are the Unrecognized Architecture of Poland's Anti-Communist "Solidarity" Movement

09:30 - 7 March, 2016
These Churches Are the Unrecognized Architecture of Poland's Anti-Communist "Solidarity" Movement

For nearly two millennia, European architecture was closely affiliated with and shaped by Christianity. Prior to the advent of Modernism, there was scarcely a style that was not promoted, or more likely defined, by the designs of churches. Such a hypothesis makes it difficult to imagine Medieval England outside the purview of Gothic Cathedrals, or Renaissance Italy as separate from its Basilicas. But with the Industrial Revolution and the economic and population growth that ensued, infrastructure and housing became the new symbols and necessities of cultural representation, finding their ultimate expression in the ease and simplicity of Modernism. The field of architecture, so long shaped and dominated by the church, had been subsumed by the changing concerns of a commercially driven society. Of course there were still churches being built, but the typology that once defined architecture in its ubiquity became novel and rare. Or so we’ve all been lead to believe.

Surprising as it might be, in the wake of World War II and under Soviet control, Poland built more churches than any other country in Europe. The majority were built in the 1980s, at a time when church construction was neither authorized nor forbidden, and as a result played a pronounced role in Cold War politics. The construction of these churches was a calculated affront to the proletariat-minded Modernism of the Soviets. In their project Architecture of the VII Day, Kuba Snopek, Iza Cichońska and Karolina Popera have sought to comprehensively document these Polish churches and the circumstances of their construction. Unique not only in how they defied the prefabrication and regularity of the Eastern Bloc, the churches were community-led endeavors that relied on local funding and input, long before these practices became buzzwords in 21st century architectural circles.

© Maciej Lulko © Maciej Lulko © Maciej Lulko © Maciej Lulko +78

AD Classics: Sainsbury Wing, National Gallery London / Venturi Scott Brown

04:00 - 10 February, 2016
AD Classics: Sainsbury Wing, National Gallery London / Venturi Scott Brown, The Sainsbury Wing as seen from Trafalgar Square. Image © Valentino Danilo Matteis
The Sainsbury Wing as seen from Trafalgar Square. Image © Valentino Danilo Matteis

Venturi Scott-Brown’s National Gallery Sainsbury Wing extension (1991) was born into a precarious no-man’s land between the warring camps of neo-Modernists and traditionalists who had been tussling over the direction of Britain’s cities for much of the prior decade. The site of the extension had come to be one of the most symbolic battlefields in British architecture since a campaign to halt its redevelopment with a Hi-Tech scheme by Ahrends Burton Koralek had led to that project’s refusal at planning in 1984.

The 'Echo Façade'. Image © Valentino Danilo Matteis Ground floor lobby with rustication. Image © Valentino Danilo Matteis © Valentino Danilo Matteis Stairway. Image © Valentino Danilo Matteis +17

Plans For a New Ultra-Postmodern 'Colossus of Rhodes' Are Brewing

04:00 - 29 December, 2015
Plans For a New Ultra-Postmodern 'Colossus of Rhodes' Are Brewing, Proposed: a new Colossus of Rhodes. Image © Ari A. Palla / Colossus of Rhodes Project
Proposed: a new Colossus of Rhodes. Image © Ari A. Palla / Colossus of Rhodes Project

The Colossus of Rhodes, a thirty-metre high sculpture depicting the Greek Titan God Helios that once stood guard at the entrance to the city's harbour, may be realised once again. Standing for only 54 years until it was destroyed by an earthquake in 226BC, its position in the ranks of Seven Wonders of the Ancient World has become almost mythological. Plans to construct a new, much larger inhabitable statue—that will stand almost four times taller at 122 metres—have now been put in motion by a small collective of architects, engineers, and tourism agents.

When Art, Architecture and Commerce Collided: The BEST Products Showrooms by SITE

09:30 - 7 December, 2015
When Art, Architecture and Commerce Collided: The BEST Products Showrooms by SITE

According to one survey, images of the BEST Products Showroom in Houston, Texas, designed by SITE (Sculpture in the Environment), appeared in more books on 20th-century architecture than any other building. The intentionally crumbling brick at that Houston store, known as “Indeterminate Façade,” and the eight other showrooms SITE designed, were simultaneously iconic and controversial, and most importantly for BEST, they brought in customers. Although SITE-founder James Wines never considered himself a Postmodernist architect, his designs for BEST, completed between 1972 and 1984, steeped in whimsical social commentary, came to symbolize the essence of Postmodernism. Today, all but one of the BEST showrooms have been demolished or altered beyond recognition, but they set a lasting precedent, and continue to influence the use of architecture in corporate branding today.

Cutler Ridge Building. Image © SITE Notch Building Plan/Elevation. Image © SITE Inside/Outside Building. Image © SITE Forest Building. Image © SITE +40

Do Architectural Preservationists Know What They’re Fighting For?

11:00 - 28 November, 2015
Do Architectural Preservationists Know What They’re Fighting For?, Earlier this year, a plan to alter James Stirling's No.1 Poultry caused a heated discussion. Image © Flickr user merula licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
Earlier this year, a plan to alter James Stirling's No.1 Poultry caused a heated discussion. Image © Flickr user merula licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

If there’s one thing that can get the architectural community up in arms, it’s the threat of demolition being placed over a much-loved building. Whether it’s a 44-year-old bus station, a 38-year-old hospital, or even a 12-year-old art museum, few other news stories can raise such a sustained outcry. And recently, some have started to turn their eyes toward the next wave of preservation battles: the upcoming crop of Postmodern buildings which are increasingly being placed under threat. But in all of these heated debates about preservation, do people really know what they’re arguing for?

A Utopian Dream Stood Still: Ricardo Bofill's Postmodern Parisian Housing Estate of Noisy-le-Grand

04:00 - 1 October, 2015
A Utopian Dream Stood Still: Ricardo Bofill's Postmodern Parisian Housing Estate of Noisy-le-Grand, Les Espaces d'Abraxas, Noisy-le-Grand, 2014. Image ©  Laurent Kronental
Les Espaces d'Abraxas, Noisy-le-Grand, 2014. Image © Laurent Kronental

East of Paris, in Seine-Saint-Denis, sits a "Babel-like" housing estate. Its otherworldly atmosphere—existing somewhere between a 'new world' utopian dream and a postmodern, neoclassical housing estate—has set the scene for two Hollywood films including Brazil (1984) and, more recently, the upcoming second instalment of The Hunger Games: Mockingjay (2015). Parisian photographer Laurent Kronental's photo series, Souvenir d'un Futur (Memory of a Future), is an homage to the senior citizens of the French capital's Grand Ensemble region — not only in Noisy-le-Grand but across the Parisian banlieue. His photographs capture a number of places and their people which, in spite of their often megalomaniacal architectural settings, have been comparatively overlooked.

See Laurent Kronental's photo series—the result of four years of visits—after the break.

Les Orgues de Flandre, 19e arrondissement Paris, 2014. Image ©  Laurent Kronental Le Pavé Neuf, Noisy-le-Grand, 2015. Image ©  Laurent Kronental Joseph, 88 ans, Les Espaces d'Abraxas, Noisy-le-Grand, 2014. Image ©  Laurent Kronental Les Tours Aillaud, Cité Pablo Picasso, Nanterre, 2014. Image ©  Laurent Kronental +20

History For Sale: Postmodern Vanna Venturi House on the Market

16:00 - 17 July, 2015
History For Sale: Postmodern Vanna Venturi House on the Market, AD Classics: Vanna Venturi House / Robert Venturi. Image © Maria Buszek
AD Classics: Vanna Venturi House / Robert Venturi. Image © Maria Buszek

Robert Venturi's Vanna Venturi House is now for sale. According to reports on Curbed, the postmodern home could be yours for just $1.75 million! Said to be one of the top 10 buildings that "changed America," the house was originally designed and built by the Pritzker Prize laureate for his mother in 1964. The home's most recent owner, University of Pennsylvania professor Dr. Thomas P. Hughes passed away February, leaving the historic residence to his daughter who is now selling the home. 

AD Essentials: Postmodernism

09:30 - 16 July, 2015

This article is part of ArchDaily Essentials, a series of articles which give you an overview of architecture's most important topics by connecting together some of our best articles from the past. To find out more about ArchDaily Essentials, click here; or discover all of our articles in the series here.

By the mid point of the twentieth century, the clean lines of the International Style and the stripped utilitarianism of functionalism were becoming increasingly common in American and European cities. Created out of a wholesale rethink of core modernist values, Postmodern architecture came as part of a philosophical shift that was just as all-encompassing as the Modernism it sought to replace; aiming to revive historical or traditional ideas and bring a more contextual approach to design. A critical elite who never really left modernism often condemned postmodernism as tacky, regressive or pandering to popular opinion; but after something of a resurgence of modernism in recent years, what’s the value of postmodernism to contemporary thinking?

Opinion: Why Michael Graves Should Have Won the Pritzker

09:30 - 21 June, 2015
Opinion: Why Michael Graves Should Have Won the Pritzker, Michael Graves' St. Coletta School. Image © Michael Graves
Michael Graves' St. Coletta School. Image © Michael Graves

In March of this year, two of the world’s great architects died in the same week. The coincidence was unusual not because of the similarities between these two men - the advanced stage of their careers, their age and relative success - but because of the marked differences. In the few days between their mutual passing, one of the two was awarded architecture’s highest medal, the Pritzker Prize. This year’s winner, Frei Otto, had been notified of his triumph in the months prior to his death. Someone you might call his alter ego – stylistically that is – the late, great Michael Graves, died shortly after the prize was awarded to Otto.

Otto was a leading light of a particular strain of European modernism, whose most lauded works were mainly completed in his youth; on the other side of the pond, Michael Graves ran a busy commercial practice with more than 350 completed buildings, but was reviled by some for his revisionist, classical style.

Michael Graves' Denver Central Library. Image © Michael Graves Michael Graves' St. Coletta School. Image © Michael Graves Michael Graves' Dolphin Resort at Walt Disney World. Image © James Cornetet - critiquethis.us Michael Graves' Portland Building. Image © Flickr user camknows +7

Metropolis Magazine Collects Tributes to Michael Graves

08:00 - 10 June, 2015
Metropolis Magazine Collects Tributes to Michael Graves, http://www.archdaily.com/407522/ad-classics-the-portland-building-michael-graves/. Image © Wikimedia user Steve Morgan
http://www.archdaily.com/407522/ad-classics-the-portland-building-michael-graves/. Image © Wikimedia user Steve Morgan

In some exceptional cases, an architect can be just as monumental as the buildings they design. Michael Graves, who passed away in March, certainly had a huge influence over the architecture of the late 20th century, with works ranging from the geometric icons of early post-modernism such as the Portland Building, to the slightly more staid Denver Central Library, to the outlandish kitsch of his Swan and Dolphin resorts for Disney. Though his death brought well-deserved attention to his work, it's just as important to remember Graves as a person, and the influence he had on people throughout his lifetime. As such, Metropolis Magazine has brought together a group of Graves' friends, colleagues and collaborators to remember Michael Graves.

http://www.archdaily.com/407522/ad-classics-the-portland-building-michael-graves/. Image © Wikimedia user Steve Morgan http://www.archdaily.com/64270/ad-classics-walt-disney-world-swan-and-dolphin-resort-michael-graves/. Image © Flickr user Jeff B. © Michael Graves & Associates © Michael Graves & Associates +5

Unified Architectural Theory, Chapter 13

09:30 - 30 May, 2015
Unified Architectural Theory, Chapter 13, The City of Culture / Eisenman Architects. "Eisenman explains how he creates forms that make him feel high in his own mind, instead of considering the mundane needs of the user. Thus it comes as no surprise that he wants to express a stressed conception of life through his buildings’ twisted and unbalanced forms". Image © Duccio Malagamba
The City of Culture / Eisenman Architects. "Eisenman explains how he creates forms that make him feel high in his own mind, instead of considering the mundane needs of the user. Thus it comes as no surprise that he wants to express a stressed conception of life through his buildings’ twisted and unbalanced forms". Image © Duccio Malagamba

We will be publishing Nikos Salingaros’ book, Unified Architectural Theory, in a series of installments, making it digitally, freely available for students and architects around the world. In Chapter 13, Salingaros begins to conclude his argument by discussing its counterpart, explaining how post-modern theorists such as Peter Eisenman came to eclipse the ideas of Christopher Alexander – and why Eisenman’s theoretical hegemony is not based upon sound architectural thinking. If you missed them, make sure to read the previous installments here.

Natural and Unnatural Form Languages

The concept of living structure, and the support for the theory offered by both direct experience and science, offers a basis for designing and understanding architecture. This platform is a sensible way of approaching design and building, because it is beholden neither to ideology, nor to individual agendas. Moreover, it should be contrasted to the irrationality of other schemes that currently appear in and seem to drive architectural discourse.