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City Of Ideas

"Architecture from Someone's Imagination is not Enough": Interview with Junya Ishigami

07:00 - 31 October, 2018
Junya Ishigami's works at the 2008 Venice Biennale. Image © junya.ishigami+associates
Junya Ishigami's works at the 2008 Venice Biennale. Image © junya.ishigami+associates

I think that the conversation with Junya Ishigami at his experimental (and very international) studio in Tokyo was one of the most memorable experiences of my recent trip to Japan. Junya's visions for not just of his own architecture but for the profession were wholeheartedly inspiring. He thinks that architecture today is “not free enough.” He wants to diversify it, liberate it from so many architects’ insistence on following particular building types and, in general, our narrow expectations. He wants his architecture to be soft and loose and finds inspiration in such improbable metaphors as clouds or the surface of water. “We need to introduce more varieties of architecture to better address peoples’ dreams…I want to expand architecture into the future by creating new comfortabilities,” says Ishigami, whose two recent manifesto-like exhibitions in Paris questioned the very nature and purpose of architecture. He is a visionary and essential voice in what is perhaps the most unsettled of all professions.

Cartier Foundation Exhibition / Junya Ishigami. Image © junya.ishigami+associates Cartier Foundation Exhibition / Junya Ishigami. Image © junya.ishigami+associates Junya Ishigami's works at the 2008 Venice Biennale. Image © junya.ishigami+associates Kanagawa Institute of Technology (KAIT) / Junya Ishigami. Image © Giovanni Emilio Galanello + 33

“Architecture Happens Because We Believe in a Better Future”: An Interview with Jürgen Mayer H.

09:30 - 23 October, 2018
Museum Garage Miami / Jürgen Mayer. Image © Miguel Guzman
Museum Garage Miami / Jürgen Mayer. Image © Miguel Guzman

Architect Jürgen Mayer H. founded his firm J.MAYER.H in Berlin in 1996. He studied both in Germany (Stuttgart University) and in the US (Cooper Union and Princeton). Back in 2010, Mayer H. told me that while his solid professional education in Germany equipped him with the know-how about the technical and practical aspects of architecture, he still lacked a clear vision about how to develop his own thought and an architectural language.

Years of questioning and experimenting eventually led to the development of his own distinctive voice. Mayer H.’s buildings have brought unique identities to many places around the globe, particularly through his use of data protection patterns that triggered the creation of architecture unlike anything seen before. On my recent visit to his studio in West Berlin we discussed the architect’s identity. When I confronted Mayer H. about what he thinks about his signature style at the times when it is no longer celebrated by the media he said, “This started as my voice and by now it is the contribution of an entire team. There is no intention or strategy, just our own capacity to work with the medium of architecture.”

Court of Justice / Jürgen Mayer. Image © Filip Dujardin Metropol Parasol / Jürgen Mayer. Image © Nikkol Rot for Holcim Rest Stops Gori / Jürgen Mayer . Image © Jesko Malkolm Johnsson-Zahn Sarpi Border Checkpoint / Jürgen Mayer. Image © Jesko Malkolm Johnsson-Zahn + 38

This Week in Architecture: Awards Season

07:45 - 13 October, 2018
This Week in Architecture: Awards Season, © Nigel Young
© Nigel Young

The dominating news of the week came courtesy of RIBA and IIT, with the two announcing this year’s laureates of the Stirling Prize and Mies Crown Hall Americas Prize, respectively. Foster + Partners were awarded RIBA’s Stirling Prize for their Bloomberg HQ in London. Said jury member Sir David Adjaye, “Bloomberg is a once-in-a-generation project which has pushed the boundaries of research and innovation in architecture.” The project has been a controversial choice, with some citing the tension between the building’s massive price tag and the current UK housing crisis.

"I Prefer When Form Follows Force": an Interview with Helmut Jahn

09:30 - 10 October, 2018
"I Prefer When Form Follows Force": an Interview with Helmut Jahn , Courtesy of Helmut Jahn
Courtesy of Helmut Jahn

In the last few years something has happened to architects’ willingness to strive for originality. The boldest visions now often come from the old guard of architecture - and frankly, I enjoy conversations with them much more. The current insistence on having common ground pushed so many younger architects into a zombie-like copycat state of mind. But to me, common ground means not to think alike – then there is space for discourse.

My most recent conversation with Helmut Jahn at his Chicago office is a case in point. “Architecture is all about going with your gut. I prefer when form follows force rather than function,” he told me. His distinguished career has been one of twists and turns, and he is not planning to give up exploring new ideas any time soon. His 1985 quadrant-in-plan Thompson Center reinvented a mundane government typology into a soaring public place, with its curved colored glass facade decisively welcoming a postmodernist period to Chicago (one we thought had finished, but now seems to be ongoing, encompassing all of post-Modern movements as its mere shades and variations.) Jahn’s architecture shook and modernized a number of global cities, and with time and experience, what began as a rebellion against Mies’s “less is more” modus operandi matured into nuanced, measured, though unquestionably gutsy, production of towers, airports, convention centers, headquarters, and, most importantly, public spaces. As Jahn himself says, “...anything you don’t need is a benefit. Not only you have to have less things but with the things you have left you have to do more.”

Courtesy of Helmut Jahn Courtesy of Helmut Jahn Courtesy of Helmut Jahn Courtesy of Helmut Jahn + 27

"I Want to Build Lighter": Francisco Gonzalez Pulido of FGP Atelier

09:30 - 2 October, 2018
"I Want to Build Lighter": Francisco Gonzalez Pulido of FGP Atelier, Harmony. Image Courtesy of FGP Atelier
Harmony. Image Courtesy of FGP Atelier

After graduating from Tecnológico de Monterrey, a leading technical school in Mexico, Francisco Gonzalez Pulido worked on design-build projects for six years before leaving for the US where he earned his Master’s degree from Harvard’s GSD in 1999. The same year the architect started working with Helmut Jahn in Chicago where he stayed for 18 years – from intern to becoming the president of the company in 2012, at which point he renamed the firm into Jahn. By then he developed his own body of work there. Last year Gonzalez Pulido started FGP Atelier in his adopted home city.

Today the studio, counts a dozen of architects and is overseeing the design of a couple of high-rises in China, a baseball stadium in Mexico City, and university buildings in Monterrey, among other projects. The following interview was conducted at FGP Atelier in Chicago, during which the architect was explicit about transmitting his view: “Architecture is too rigid, too formal. It is time to break free…I want to build lighter. I want to build smarter.”

ART. Image Courtesy of FGP Atelier Tecnano. Image Courtesy of FGP Atelier DIABLOS. Image Courtesy of FGP Atelier Harmony. Image Courtesy of FGP Atelier + 41

“We Learn From the Ordinary as Well as From the Extraordinary”: Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown

09:30 - 24 September, 2018
“We Learn From the Ordinary as Well as From the Extraordinary”: Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown, Best Products Showroom, Langhorne, Pennsylvania (1978). Image © Tom Bernard
Best Products Showroom, Langhorne, Pennsylvania (1978). Image © Tom Bernard

There are so many complexities and contradictions in life in general and architecture in particular. I am writing this intro to an interview I held in 2004 with Robert Venturi and his life-and-architecture partner Denise Scott Brown, while visiting Beijing’s Tsinghua University where I was invited to teach this fall. Was it simply a coincidence when, at the last moment before leaving my New York City apartment I would, almost by chance, grab a 2001 issue of Architecture magazine with Venturi on its cover and his contradictory quote, “I am not now and never have been a postmodernist.

I learned of Venturi's passing last week on my first day of teaching at Tsinghua; the news arrived as I and the students discussed their proposals to improve their campus. In yet another strange coincidence, Venturi and Scott Brown had, just prior to our interview, been working on their own proposal for the very same campus. It was a pleasant and bittersweet surprise then to hear my students speak of freeing up the campus in much the same ways as Venturi's Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture attacked then domineering architecture of minimalism and abstraction over 50 years ago.

His and Scott Brown’s ideas for this campus did not materialize but their analytical and often rebellious thinking greatly influenced how students here and architects all over the world approach architecture. It was Venturi who freed our discipline, it was him who set us all free and encouraged to ask our own questions, to get away from all kinds of dogmas and to provoke ideas of hybridization. What follows is an excerpt from my conversation with the architects at their office in Philadelphia 14 years ago.  

“We Learn From the Ordinary as Well as From the Extraordinary”: Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown “We Learn From the Ordinary as Well as From the Extraordinary”: Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown “We Learn From the Ordinary as Well as From the Extraordinary”: Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown “We Learn From the Ordinary as Well as From the Extraordinary”: Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown + 13

"Making Problems is More Fun; Solving Problems is Too Easy": Liz Diller and Ricardo Scofidio of Diller Scofidio + Renfro

09:30 - 10 September, 2018
"Making Problems is More Fun; Solving Problems is Too Easy": Liz Diller and Ricardo Scofidio of Diller Scofidio + Renfro, © Hufton + Crow
© Hufton + Crow

It is so refreshing to hear the words: “We do everything differently. We think differently. We are still not a part of any system or any group.” In the following excerpt of my recent conversation with Liz Diller and Ric Scofidio at their busy New York studio we discussed conventions that so many architects accept and embrace, and how to tear them apart in order to reinvent architecture yet again. In New York the founding partners of Diller, Scofidio + Renfro have shown us exactly that with their popular High Line park, original redevelopment of the Lincoln Center, sculpture-like Columbia University Medical Center in Washington Heights, and The Shed with its movable “turtle shell” that’s taking shape in the Hudson Yards to address the evolving needs of artists because what art will look like in the future is an open question.

 

Institute of Contemporary Art / Diller Scofidio + Renfro. Image © Iwan Baan Roy and Diana Vagelos Education Center / Diller Scofidio + Renfro. Image © Iwan Baan Zaryadye Park / Diller Scofidio + Renfro. Image © Maria Gonzalez The Broad Museum / Diller Scofidio + Renfro. Image © Iwan Baan + 39

Manuel Zornoza of LATITUDE: "We Were Fascinated by this Idea - How do You Build a City from Scratch?"

09:30 - 22 August, 2018
Manuel Zornoza of LATITUDE: "We Were Fascinated by this Idea - How do You Build a City from Scratch?", © Hector Peinador. Image Courtesy of LATITUDE
© Hector Peinador. Image Courtesy of LATITUDE

Manuel N. Zornoza grew up in Alicante, Spain and, following studies in Madrid (UAX) and London (the AA), relocated to China in 2010 to avoid the economic crisis stifling architectural work in his home country. Over the last eight years, the young architect’s small but thriving studio has built more than a dozen projects, from shops, to factory space conversions, to a traditional Chinese hutong - all in China. But that’s not to say Zornoza’s left his roots behind. He now also maintains a small practice in Madrid, which handles projects in both China and Spain.

This interview was conducted on a bullet train ride from Beijing to Tianjin, where we ventured in search of the recent architecture that has brought so much media attention to this emerging metropolis.

Courtesy of LATITUDE © Shannon Fagan. Image Courtesy of LATITUDE Courtesy of LATITUDE Courtesy of LATITUDE + 17

Sergey Skuratov of Sergey Skuratov Architects: "I Imagine the Building as a Living Thing"

09:30 - 1 August, 2018
Copper House / Sergey Skuratov Architects. Image Courtesy of Sergey Skuratov Architects
Copper House / Sergey Skuratov Architects. Image Courtesy of Sergey Skuratov Architects

Sergey Skuratov, founder of Sergey Skuratov Architects, an award-winning Russian practice (2008 Architect of the Year), is known for his sleek and well-composed portfolio. Projects such as Copper House, Art House, and House on Mosfilmovskaya Street demonstrate his sensitivity to materiality and ability to retain his vision from concept to reality. Over the last two decades Skuratov has succeeded in producing a whole strata of world-class architecture in Moscow, far more than any other local practitioner. His projects, predominantly residential and office complexes, have remained attractive and versatile without ever veering into conservatism.

Minsk Hills / Sergey Skuratov Architects. Image Courtesy of Sergey Skuratov Architects Ego House / Sergey Skuratov Architects. Image Courtesy of Sergey Skuratov Architects House on Mosfilmovskaya Street / Sergey Skuratov Architects. Image Courtesy of Sergey Skuratov Architects Copper House / Sergey Skuratov Architects. Image Courtesy of Sergey Skuratov Architects + 16

Philip Yuan of Archi-Union Architects: "The Process of Construction can be Elevated to Art Performance"

09:30 - 19 July, 2018
Philip Yuan of Archi-Union Architects: "The Process of Construction can be Elevated to Art Performance", Chi-She, Shanghai / Archi-Union Architects. Image © Shengliang Su
Chi-She, Shanghai / Archi-Union Architects. Image © Shengliang Su

Though the understated Swiss and British Pavilions were the big (and perhaps overly literal) winners at this year’s Venice Architecture Biennale investigating Freespace, it was the Chinese that put their relentless architectural progress on display. Nestled in the back of the Arsenale, the Chinese Pavilion presented dozens of built works all around Chinese countryside, each project demonstrating a meaningful social impact through the involvement of villagers in the production process. Among the most visible Chinese architects presenting at the pavilion was Shanghai-based educator and practitioner Philip Yuan, whose office Archi-Union Architects has become a major voice in the already-distinctive contemporary Chinese architecture scene.

On 19 July, 2018 curator Vladimir Belogolovsky will join gallerist and curator Ulrich Müller to discuss Philip Yuan’s work at the opening of Archi-Union Architects Collaborative Laboratory exhibition at Architektur Galerie Berlin. Belogolovsky’s interview with Philip Yuan follows after the break:

Songjiang Art Campus, Shanghai / Archi-Union Architects. Image Courtesy of Archi-Union Architects Courtesy of Archi-Union Architects The office of Archi-Union Architects in Shanghai. . Image Courtesy of Archi-Union Architects Lanxiting, Chengdu / Archi-Union Architects. Image © SHEN Zhonghai + 24

Han Wenqiang of ARCHSTUDIO: “Let’s Call My Work the Art of Coordination”

09:30 - 24 May, 2018
Han Wenqiang of ARCHSTUDIO: “Let’s Call My Work the Art of Coordination”, Tea House in Hutong, 2015. Image © Wang Ning
Tea House in Hutong, 2015. Image © Wang Ning

Throughout the work of Beijing-based practice ARCHSTUDIO, there is a constant feeling of sensitivity to culture and history. That is not to say that the firm’s designs are not modern—far from it in fact—but that the work of founder Han Wenqiang infuses modern materials and forms with a distinctly Chinese sensibility, that is just as apparent in his designs for a food packaging facility as it is in a Buddhist shrine (incidentally, both designs which won ArchDaily Building of the Year Awards, in 2017 and 2018 respectively). In the latest interview from his “City of Ideas” series, Vladimir Belogolovsky speaks to Han about whether architecture is an art form and what it means to create “Chinese” architecture in the 21st century.

Haitang Villa, 2015. Image © Magic Penny Tangshan Organic Farm, 2015. Image © Weiqi Jin Twisting Courtyard, 2017. Image © Weiqi Jin Waterside Buddhist Shrine, 2017. Image © Weiqi Jin + 53

Will Alsop: “That’s the Art of Architecture—Putting Everything Together in Your Own Way”

09:30 - 17 May, 2018
Will Alsop: “That’s the Art of Architecture—Putting Everything Together in Your Own Way”, Sharp Centre for Design at the Ontario College of Art and Design, 2004. Image Courtesy of aLL Design
Sharp Centre for Design at the Ontario College of Art and Design, 2004. Image Courtesy of aLL Design

During my meetings with Will Alsop—two at his London studio in 2008 and 2010, and during our four-day trip to Moscow where I organized his lecture for SPEECH Magazine in winter 2011—he impressed me as having the most genuine, artistic, and free-spirited soul of all the architects I met. Calatrava, Hadid, and Gehry may strike one as great artists, but no matter how inventive they are, they are all involved in shaping buildings. Alsop, on the other hand, would find himself engaged in working in a completely boundless and unrestricted manner as a true artist. It seems that his whimsical works—"blobs and daubs," as he called them—are imagined as pure fantasies to be transformed into architecture much later by his staff. Eventually, he would have to “sell” them to his clients as buildings that function.

Alsop’s creations bring magic to the real world; they connect realities and dreams in the most fantastic ways. I never thought I would like his buildings though. I saw their renderings and photographs as cartoonish, until I visited them in person in London and Shanghai, among other places. Then my preconceptions dissipated. These structures make people feel happy and curious; they disarm the harshest critics and enrich our experiences. The following conversation with Alsop, who passed away on May 12 at age 70, is a condensed interview version based on two of our multi-hour meetings.

Peckham Library, 2000. Image Courtesy of aLL Design Chips Building, 2009. Image Courtesy of aLL Design Colorium, 2001. Image Courtesy of aLL Design Carnegie Pavilion, Headingley, 2010. Image Courtesy of aLL Design + 60

Atelier Deshaus: "The Idea Is Not to Create an Object But to Construct a Path"

09:30 - 9 May, 2018
Atelier Deshaus: "The Idea Is Not to Create an Object But to Construct a Path", Long Museum West Bund, Shanghai, 2014. Image © Shengliang Su
Long Museum West Bund, Shanghai, 2014. Image © Shengliang Su

In China's newly emerging constellation of famed architects, few firms elicit the sense of surprise caused by the work of Atelier Deshaus. With projects ranging from awe-inspiring to humble, their work does not adhere to any stylistic rules, but all of their projects exude an enigmatic aura. In this interview, the latest in Vladimir Belogolovsky’s “City of Ideas” series, principals Liu Yichun and Chen Yifeng discuss the role of identity in their work and how they try to connect their buildings to the landscape.

Vladimir Belogolovsky: Is it true that you each design different projects in the studio? Why is that?

Liu Yichun: This has been true since 2010. Before that we always designed everything together. We used to have endless discussions and too many disagreements and arguments. That’s why we decided to pursue two parallel paths. This approach led to greater efficiency and it helped us to formulate clearer ideas of our independent views of architecture. It also helps us to diversify our work and to avoid forming one recognizable style.

Chen Yifeng: It is important for us to express our solutions differently, even though, fundamentally, we are working in one direction and pursuing one family of ideas.

Long Museum West Bund, Shanghai, 2014. Image © Shengliang Su Kindergarten of Jiading New Town, Shanghai, 2008. Image Courtesy of Shu He Spiral Gallery I, Shanghai, 2011. Image Courtesy of Shu He Huaxin Wisdom Hub, Shanghai, 2015. Image © Chen Hao + 28

Ma Yansong: “Some People May Say My Work Is Futuristic, But I See It as Traditional”

09:30 - 30 March, 2018
Huangshan Mountain Village. Image © Hufton + Crow
Huangshan Mountain Village. Image © Hufton + Crow

With the unconventional, undulating forms of his buildings—and the fact that his path to architectural success included a stint working for Zaha HadidMa Yansong is often miscategorized as an architect of the latter generation of Deconstructivists, interested only in futuristic forms that push the boundaries of technology for the sake of innovation as an end in itself. But in fact Ma’s designs, especially those in his home country of China, are deeply rooted in nature and tradition, as he explains in the latest interview from Vladimir Belogolovsky’s “City of Ideas” series.

Vladimir Belogolovsky: If someone wants to understand what your work is about, what project would you show and what would you say about it?

Ma Yansong: To tell you the truth, I don’t mind if people don’t understand my work or who I am. [Laughs.] It is hard to choose because I am a different person while working on every project. Every project is about different emotions.

Chaoyang Park Plaza. Image © Hufton + Crow Harbin Opera House. Image © Iwan Baan Huangshan Mountain Village. Image © Fernando Guerra |  FG+SG Absolute Towers. Image © Iwan Baan + 93

Benjamín Romano: "I Focus on Improving the Building"

09:30 - 23 February, 2018
Torre Reforma. Image © Alfonso Merchand
Torre Reforma. Image © Alfonso Merchand

Visiting Mexico City several times in recent months enabled me to get to know a number of leading architects there. In the process, I was in turn directed to other architects that were new to me, whom I then discovered were, in fact, the leading and most revered architects in the country according to the local architectural community. I am particularly referring to Alberto Kalach and Mauricio Rocha, whose interviews were published in this column last year, and Benjamín Romano, whose name came up when I asked a number of architects to cite their favorite building from recent years in Mexico City. Along with the absolute favorite, Vasconcelos Library by Kalach, another structure stood out: Torre Reforma, a 57-story office tower, the tallest building in the city. The following conversation with Romano, its architect, took place inside this unusually powerful and inventive structure.

Torre Reforma. Image © Alfonso Merchand Torre Reforma. Image © Alfonso Merchand Torre Reforma. Image © Alfonso Merchand Torre Reforma. Image © Alfonso Merchand + 33

Tatiana Bilbao: “Architecture Should Benefit Every Single Human Being on This Planet”

10:30 - 12 January, 2018
Tatiana Bilbao: “Architecture Should Benefit Every Single Human Being on This Planet”, House in Ajijic, Jalostitlán, Mexico, 2010. Image © Iwan Baan
House in Ajijic, Jalostitlán, Mexico, 2010. Image © Iwan Baan

As part of a generation of designers that have, in recent years, put Mexico on the map, Tatiana Bilbao is an architect that is increasingly part of the profession’s global consciousness. But, while some Mexican architects have made their mark with spectacular architecture following the international trend of “iconic” architecture, Bilbao opted instead for a more people-focused approach. In this interview, the latest in Vladimir Belogolovsky’s “City of Ideas” series, Bilbao explains how she got into this type of community-building architecture, her thoughts on architectural form, and her ambitions for the future.

Vladimir Belogolovsky: The more I talk to architects of your generation or my generation, the more it becomes apparent that architecture has absolutely no boundaries. In other words, architecture is not just about buildings. More and more, architecture is about building communities.

Tatiana Bilbao: Absolutely. For me, that is the most important part of architecture. Architecture is not about building a building; architecture is about building a community.

Housing in Ciudad Acuña, Mexico, 2015. Image © Jaime Navarro Bioinnova, Culiacán Rosales, Mexico, 2012. Image © Iwan Baan House in Ajijic, Jalostitlán, Mexico, 2010. Image © Iwan Baan Casa Ventura, San Pedro Garza Garcia, Mexico, 2011. Image © Rory Gardiner + 20

LOT-EK: “The Shipping Container Is a Vehicle to Invent New Architecture”

10:30 - 3 January, 2018
LOT-EK: “The Shipping Container Is a Vehicle to Invent New Architecture”, PUMA City, 2008. Image © Danny Bright
PUMA City, 2008. Image © Danny Bright

Shipping containers, once a darling of architectural upcycling, have received a lot of criticism recently, as architects are beginning to recognize that their perceived advantages—ready-made habitable space and structure, and an opportunity to recycle a widely available material—are based in little more than hopeful PR spin. But for one of the most prominent practices which regularly uses shipping containers in their work, LOT-EK, the attraction of these architectural ready-mades always went beyond the ecological and practical rationalizations provided by others. In this interview at the firm's New York studio, part of Vladimir Belogolovsky’s “City of Ideas” series, LOT-EK founders Ada Tolla and Giuseppe Lignano discuss the conceptual foundations of their fascination with shipping container architecture.

Carroll House, Brooklyn, New York, USA, 2016. Image © Danny Bright PUMA City, 2008. Image © Danny Bright Qiyun Mountain Camp, Huangshan, China, 2015. Image © Noah Sheldon Irving Place Carriage House, Brooklyn, New York, USA, 2014. Image © Danny Bright + 48

Eduardo Souto de Moura: “I Look Beyond Solution; I Look For an Expression”

10:30 - 14 December, 2017
Eduardo Souto de Moura: “I Look Beyond Solution; I Look For an Expression”, Casa das Histórias Paula Rego, 2008. Image © Fernando Guerra |  FG+SG
Casa das Histórias Paula Rego, 2008. Image © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

The architectural approach of 2011 Pritzker Prize-winner Eduardo Souto de Moura can be difficult to summarize. His convictions on matters of aesthetics and design are strongly held, but also highly individual and at times even unusual. In his work, this translates to buildings that are enigmatic, yet not flashy—in the words of the 2011 Pritzker Prize jury, “His buildings have a unique ability to convey seemingly conflicting characteristics—power and modesty, bravado and subtlety, bold public authority and sense of intimacy—at the same time.” In the latest interview from his “City of Ideas” series, Vladimir Belogolovsky speaks to Souto de Moura to probe his architectural mind and understand the thinking behind these powerful yet modest works.

Vladimir Belogolovsky: I had a chance to visit your Paula Rego Museum in Cascais outside of Lisbon, which is a very sculptural composition of iconic forms...

Eduardo Souto de Moura: Why are you saying it is sculptural? I don’t agree.

Braga Municipal Stadium, 2003. Image © Leonardo Finotti Convento Das Bernardas, 2012. Image © Luis Ferreira Alves Cantareira Building, 2013. Image © Luis Ferreira Alves Santa Maria do Bouro Convent, by Eduardo Souto de Moura and Humberto Vieira, 1997. Image © Luis Ferreira Alves + 21