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Luke Fiederer

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AD Classics: Haus am Horn / Georg Muche

07:00 - 12 June, 2017
AD Classics: Haus am Horn / Georg Muche, Courtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.. Image © Cameron Blaylock
Courtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.. Image © Cameron Blaylock

In 1919, at a time in which Germany was still in upheaval over its defeat in the First World War (and compounded by the loss of its monarchy), the Academy of Fine Arts and School of Applied Arts in Weimar, Germany, were combined to form the first Bauhaus. Its stated goal was to erase the separation that had developed between artists and craftsmen, combining the talents of both occupations in order to achieve a unified architectonic feeling which they believed had been lost in the divide. Students of the Bauhaus were to abandon the framework of design standards that had been developed by traditional European schools and experiment with natural materials, abstract forms, and their own intuitions. Although the school’s output was initially Expressionist in nature, by 1922 it had evolved into something more in line with the rising International Style.[1]

Courtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.. Image © Cameron Blaylock Courtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.. Image © Cameron Blaylock Courtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V.. Image © Cameron Blaylock A direct line of sight from the children’s room (in the foreground) to the kitchen allowed for a mother to keep watch over her children without the aid of a servant. ImageCourtesy of Freundeskreis der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar e. V. + 14

AD Classics: Himeji Castle / Ikeda Terumasa

04:00 - 30 May, 2017
AD Classics: Himeji Castle / Ikeda Terumasa, The white plaster walls and sweeping terraces of Himeji-jo inspire its other name, “Castle of the White Heron.” . ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Oren Rozen (licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0)
The white plaster walls and sweeping terraces of Himeji-jo inspire its other name, “Castle of the White Heron.” . ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Oren Rozen (licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0)

With its gleaming white walls and elegantly terraced roofs, it is easy to forget that Himeji Castle was built as a fortress . Standing on two hilltops in the city of Himeji, the old fortress, also known as Himeji-jo, is the greatest surviving example of Japanese castle architecture from the early years of the Shogunate, which governed the island nation from the late 1500s to the 19th Century. Although never tested in battle, the castle’s elaborate defensive measures represent the best strategic design the period produced. While these measures have since been rendered obsolete, the same cannot be said for the castle’s soaring, pristine aesthetic, which earned it the nickname Shirasagi-jo – “Castle of the White Heron.”

Courtesy of Flickr user Ben Kubota (licensed under CC BY 2.0) Courtesy of Flickr user alisdair (licensed under CC BY 2.0) A period image depicts the labor needed to construct Ikeda Terumasa’s grand new Himeji Castle. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user ブレイズマン (Public Domain) This map from the Himeji City Castle Laboratory Collection depicts the concentric lines of defense surrounding Himeji Castle. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user ブレイズマン (Public Domain) + 14

AD Classics: Pruitt-Igoe Housing Project / Minoru Yamasaki

04:00 - 15 May, 2017
AD Classics: Pruitt-Igoe Housing Project / Minoru Yamasaki, An aerial photo by the US Geological Survey compares the narrow, monolithic blocks of Pruitt-Igoe with the neighboring pre-Modernist buildings of St. Louis. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Junkyardsparkle (Public Domain)
An aerial photo by the US Geological Survey compares the narrow, monolithic blocks of Pruitt-Igoe with the neighboring pre-Modernist buildings of St. Louis. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Junkyardsparkle (Public Domain)

Few buildings in history can claim as infamous a legacy as that of the Pruitt-Igoe Housing Project of St. Louis, Missouri. Built during the height of Modernism this nominally innovative collection of residential towers was meant to stand as a triumph of rational architectural design over the ills of poverty and urban blight; instead, two decades of turmoil preceded the final, unceremonious destruction of the entire complex in 1973. The fall of Pruitt-Igoe ultimately came to signify not only the failure of one public housing project, but arguably the death knell of the entire Modernist era of design.

After two decades of crime and increasing maintenance issues, Pruitt-Igoe was ultimately demolished between 1972 and 1977. ImageVia pruitt-igoe.com The gleaming towers of Pruitt-Igoe were to have been a “Manhattan on the Mississippi.” . ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Cadastral (Public Domain) Courtesy of "The Pruitt Igoe Myth" Much of the landscaping and community amenities Minoru Yamasaki originally proposed were never built, contributing to Pruitt-Igoe’s eventual downward spiral. ImageVia pruitt-igoe.com + 8

AD Classics: Kafka's Castle / Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitecturas

04:00 - 9 May, 2017
AD Classics: Kafka's Castle / Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitecturas, © Ricardo Bofill
© Ricardo Bofill

Standing on a rise overlooking the Spanish Mediterranean coast, there is an odd structure which could easily be mistaken for an vast pile of forgotten blocks. Kafka’s Castle, built in 1968, was one of the earlier projects completed by Ricardo Bofill, a Spanish Postmodern architect known for apartment buildings as monumental as they were thought-provoking. While his later work indulged in Postmodern historicism, the modular and mathematically-derived Kafka’s Castle was an unabashed break from any local or global tradition – as much the case now as it was in the 1960s.

© Ricardo Bofill © Ricardo Bofill © Ricardo Bofill Once the physical model of Kafka’s Castle was completed, RBTA managed to condense all necessary construction information into only five drawings. Image© Ricardo Bofill + 19

AD Classics: 1988 Deconstructivist Exhibition at New York's Museum of Modern Art (MoMA)

07:00 - 29 March, 2017
AD Classics: 1988 Deconstructivist Exhibition at New York's Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), View into the exhibition (1988). Photographer unknown. Image via MoMA
View into the exhibition (1988). Photographer unknown. Image via MoMA

When Philip Johnson curated the Museum of Modern Arts’ (MoMA) 1932 “International Exhibition of Modern Architecture,” he did so with the explicit intention of defining the International Style. As a guest curator at the same institution in 1988 alongside Mark Wigley (now Dean Emeritus of the Columbia GSAPP), Johnson took the opposite approach: rather than present architecture derived from a rigidly uniform set of design principles, he gathered a collection of work by architects whose similar (but not identical) approaches had yielded similar results. The designers he selected—Peter Eisenman, Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid, Rem Koolhaas, Daniel Libeskind, Bernard Tschumi, and the firm Coop Himmelblau (led by Wolf Prix)—would prove to be some of the most influential architects of the late 20th Century to the present day.[1,2]

Inside the exhibition (1988). Photographer unknown. Image via MoMA Inside the exhibition (1988). Photographer unknown. Image via MoMA Inside the exhibition (1988). Photographer unknown. Image via MoMA 1988 Catalogue Cover. Image via MoMA + 6

AD Classics: Gallaratese Quarter / Aldo Rossi & Carlo Aymonino

11:15 - 14 March, 2017
AD Classics: Gallaratese Quarter / Aldo Rossi & Carlo Aymonino, © Gili Merin
© Gili Merin

As the dust settled following the Second World War much of Europe was left with a crippling shortage of housing. In Milan, a series of plans were drafted in response to the crisis, laying out satellite communities for the northern Italian city which would each house between 50,000 to 130,000 people. Construction the first of these communities began in 1946, one year after the end of the conflict; ten years later in 1956, the adoption of Il Piano Regolatore Generale—a new master plan—set the stage for the development of the second, known as 'Gallaratese'. The site of the new community was split into parts 1 and 2, the latter of which was owned by the Monte Amiata Società Mineraria per Azioni. When the plan allowed for private development of Gallaratese 2 in late 1967, the commission for the project was given to Studio Ayde and, in particular, its partner Carlo Aymonino. Two months later Aymonino would invite Aldo Rossi to design a building for the complex and the two Italians set about realizing their respective visions for the ideal microcosmic community.[1]

© Gili Merin © Gili Merin © Gili Merin © Gili Merin + 17

AD Classics: Palais des Papes / Pierre Poisson & Jean de Louvres

04:00 - 9 March, 2017
AD Classics: Palais des Papes / Pierre Poisson & Jean de Louvres, An elevation of the palace’s eastern façade by Eugène Viollet Le-Duc. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Ampon (Public Domain)
An elevation of the palace’s eastern façade by Eugène Viollet Le-Duc. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Ampon (Public Domain)

While the Roman Catholic Church is synonymous with the Eternal City (and Italian capital), the greatest monument from its medieval heyday actually stands in southern France. The relic of the Papacy’s brief departure from Rome, the Palais des Papes (“Palace of the Popes”) in Avignon is the largest Gothic palace ever built. Constructed in two main phases by two of its residents, the Palais des Papes is a grandiose architectural expression of the wealth and power of the eleven popes who called Avignon their home and base of power.

Photo by Jean-Marc Rosier; courtesy of Wikimedia user Ampon (licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0) Bounded by the papal apartments and the two wings of the New Palace, the Cour d’Honneur is substantially larger than the courtyard defined by the cloisters of the Old Palace. ImagePhoto by Jean-Marc Rosier; courtesy of Wikimedia user Ampon (licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0) A 15th Century drawing of Avignon by Étienne Matellange; the Palais des Papes dominates the skyline at the top right. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Aa77zz (Public Domain) A plan of the Palais des Papes drawn in 1921. The Palais Vieux, or Old Palace, is at the left, while the Palais Neuf, or New Palace, is on the right. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user François GOGLINS (Public Domain) + 19

AD Classics: Acropolis of Athens / Ictinus, Callicrates, Mnesikles and Phidias

04:00 - 22 February, 2017
AD Classics: Acropolis of Athens / Ictinus, Callicrates, Mnesikles and Phidias, An elevation of the entire Acropolis as seen from the west; while the Parthenon dominates the scene, it is nonetheless only part of a greater composition. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Quibik (Public Domain)
An elevation of the entire Acropolis as seen from the west; while the Parthenon dominates the scene, it is nonetheless only part of a greater composition. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Quibik (Public Domain)

The Parthenon, perhaps the most celebrated example of Classical Greek architecture, was only the first of a series of remarkable buildings to be constructed atop the Athenian Acropolis in the wake of the Persian Wars. Led by the renowned statesman Pericles, the city-state embarked on an ambitious rebuilding program which replaced all that had been razed by the Persians. The new complex, while dedicated to the gods and the legends that surrounded the Acropolis, were as much a declaration of Athens’ glory as they were places of worship – monuments to a people who had risen from the ashes of a war to become the most powerful and prosperous state in the ancient world.

Although the western façade of the Propylaea has not survived the passage of time, its columns still stand guard at the entrance to the Acropolis. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Thomas Hackl (licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0) Courtesy of Flickr user Aleksandr Zykov (licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0) Throngs make their way up the causeway to the Acropolis in this artistic imagining of the Panathenaic Procession.. ImageCourtesy of Yale University Press Courtesy of Wikimedia user Steinsplitterbot (Public Domain) + 14

AD Classics: Hôtel van Eetvelde / Victor Horta

04:00 - 1 February, 2017
AD Classics: Hôtel van Eetvelde / Victor Horta, Courtesy of Wikimedia user Zinneke (licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0)
Courtesy of Wikimedia user Zinneke (licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0)

To the contemporary observer, the flowing lines and naturalistic ornamentation of Art Nouveau do not appear particularly radical. To some, Art Nouveau may even seem to be the dying gasp of 19th Century Classicism just before the unmistakably modern Art Deco and International Styles supplanted it as the design modes of choice. The Hôtel van Eetvelde, designed in 1897 by Victor Horta—the architect considered to be the father of Art Nouveau—suggests a different story. With its innovative spatial strategy and expressive use of new industrial materials, the Hôtel van Eetvelde is a testament to the novelty of the “New Art.”

Courtesy of Wikimedia user Zinneke (licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0) Courtesy of Flickr user T P (licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) Courtesy of Wikimedia user Koenvde (Public Domain) This street front comprises typical Brusselian townhouses: narrow, multilevel, and highly individualistic in their ornamentation. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Steve Cadman (licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0) + 6

AD Classics: The Parthenon / Ictinus and Callicrates

04:00 - 25 January, 2017
AD Classics: The Parthenon / Ictinus and Callicrates, The Acropolis, the plateau on which the Parthenon stands, served as a fortified citadel in Athens’ Mycenaean past. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Konstantinos Dafalias (licensed under CC BY 2.0)
The Acropolis, the plateau on which the Parthenon stands, served as a fortified citadel in Athens’ Mycenaean past. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Konstantinos Dafalias (licensed under CC BY 2.0)

It is unsurprising that Athens, the city widely considered to be the cradle of Western civilization, would have made as celebrated a contribution to architecture as it has to countless other human pursuits. Built on a hilltop above the contemporary city, the weathered marble complex known as the Acropolis stands as a faded remnant from the former city-state’s ancient glory years, surrounded by the products of the centuries that followed. The greatest of these landmarks, the Parthenon, captures an age long past when Athens was the wealthiest and most powerful city-state in Greece and beyond.

Courtesy of Flickr user Kristof Verslype (licensed under CC BY 2.0) The west pediment of the reconstruction of the Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee depicts Athena and Poseidon fighting for the rule of Attica while the other gods look on. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user damian entwistle (licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0) After almost 2,500 years, the Parthenon still stands tall above the city of Athens. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Aris Gionis (licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0) The Parthenon’s columns, being narrower than typical Doric proportions dictated, served to reduce the bulk of the temple and make it appear more airy and graceful. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Jebulon (licensed under CC0 1.0) + 11

The Unexpected Stories Behind 10 Skyscrapers That Were Actually Built

04:00 - 24 January, 2017
The Unexpected Stories Behind 10 Skyscrapers That Were Actually Built, Torre Velasca. Image © José Tomás Franco
Torre Velasca. Image © José Tomás Franco

As long as there have been buildings mankind has sought to construct its way to the heavens. From stone pyramids to steel skyscrapers, successive generations of designers have devised ever more innovative ways to push the vertical boundaries of architecture. Whether stone or steel, however, each attempt to reach unprecedented heights has represented a vast undertaking in terms of both materials and labor – and the more complex the project, the greater the chance for things to go awry.

Ryugyong Hotel. Image © José Tomás Franco Robot Building. Image © José Tomás Franco CCTV Headquarters. Image © José Tomás Franco Cayan Tower. Image © José Tomás Franco + 21

AD Classics: Roman Pantheon / Emperor Hadrian

04:00 - 26 December, 2016
AD Classics: Roman Pantheon / Emperor Hadrian, Courtesy of Flickr user Phil Whitehouse (licensed under CC BY 2.0)
Courtesy of Flickr user Phil Whitehouse (licensed under CC BY 2.0)

Locked within Rome’s labyrinthine maze of narrow streets stands one of the most renowned buildings in the history of architecture. Built at the height of the Roman Empire’s power and wealth, the Roman Pantheon has been both lauded and studied for both the immensity of its dome and its celestial geometry for over two millennia. During this time it has been the subject of countless imitations and references as the enduring architectural legacy of one of the world’s most influential epochs.

The coffers in the Pantheon’s dome, aside from their aesthetic qualities, serve to reduce the weight of the dome on the support structure below. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Michael Vadon under CC BY 2.0 Courtesy of Flickr user Michael Johnson (licensed under CC BY 2.0) The interior of the Pantheon contains a perfectly spherical volume – a cosmic symbol which triumphantly asserted the authority and might of the Roman Empire. ImageDrawing by Francesco Piraneni. Via Wikimedia user Bkmd under Public Domain Although the original Pantheon built by Marcus Agrippa burned down after his death, Hadrian ordered that its replacement bear an inscription stating that Agrippa had built it as a tribute to his predecessors. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Michael Johnson under CC BY 2.0 + 16

What Exactly is Matti Suuronen's Futuro House?

04:00 - 12 December, 2016
What Exactly is Matti Suuronen's Futuro House?, © Gili Merin
© Gili Merin

The Futuro House looks more like an alien spacecraft than a building. Designed by Finnish architect Matti Suuronen in 1968 as a ski chalet, the radical design was subsequently marketed to the public as a small prefabricated home, easily assembled and installed on virtually any topography. Its plastic construction and futurist aesthetic combined to create a product which is identifiable with both the future and the past.

© Gili Merin © Gili Merin © Gili Merin © Gili Merin + 10

AD Classics: Trylon and Perisphere / Harrison and Fouilhoux

04:00 - 11 December, 2016
AD Classics: Trylon and Perisphere / Harrison and Fouilhoux, Courtesy of Flickr user Richard under CC BY 2.0
Courtesy of Flickr user Richard under CC BY 2.0

With the onset of the Great Depression in the 1930s, the great World’s Fairs that had been held around the globe since the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851 lost much of their momentum. With the specter of another global conflict looming like a stormcloud on the horizon in the latter half of the decade, prospects for the future only grew darker. It was in this air of uncertainty and fear that the gleaming white Trylon and Perisphere of the 1939 New York World’s Fair made their debuts, the centerpiece of an exhibition that presented a vision of hope for things to come.

Image via MetMuseum.org (Public Domain) A quarter section of the Perisphere reveals its steel skeletal structure. ImageImage via nyworldsfaircollections.tumblr.com (Public Domain) Image via nyworldsfaircollections.tumblr.com (Public Domain) The Helicline connected the Trylon and Perisphere and allowed visitors to make their way back to the ground from six stories up + 8

AD Classics: University of Virginia / Thomas Jefferson

04:00 - 8 December, 2016
AD Classics: University of Virginia / Thomas Jefferson, © Larry Harris
© Larry Harris

The end of the War of 1812 left the young United States of America awash with nationalist fervor. In the following years, the world’s first modern republic experienced unprecedented growth and prosperity; it was not without reason that the period came to be known as the “Era of Good Feelings.”[1] It was into this epoch of unbridled national pride that Thomas Jefferson, one of the country’s founding fathers and its third President, introduced his master plan for the University of Virginia: an architectural manifestation of the Enlightenment and republican ideals he had helped cultivate.

Ground floor plan and elevation of the Rotunda. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user Fæ Pavilion X was the only pavilion of the ten to feature Corinthian design elements. ImageCourtesy of US Library of Congress (Public Domain) Courtesy of US Library of Congress (Public Domain) Courtesy of US Library of Congress (Public Domain) + 37

AD Classics: Space Needle / John Graham & Company

04:00 - 7 December, 2016
Courtesy of Wikimedia user Rattlhed (Public Domain)
Courtesy of Wikimedia user Rattlhed (Public Domain)

The opening of the Century 21 Exposition on April 21, 1962 transformed the image of Seattle and the American Northwest in the eyes of the world. The region, which had been known until that point more for its natural resources than as a cultural capital, established a new reputation as a center of emergent technologies and aerospace design. This new identity was embodied by the centerpiece of the exposition: the Space Needle, a slender assemblage of steel and reinforced concrete which became—and remains—Seattle’s most iconic landmark.[1]

The Space Needle under construction before its opening in April 1962. ImageCourtesy of Seattle Municipal Archives (Public Domain) Courtesy of Wikimedia user Cacophony (Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0) A 1962 cutaway drawing of the Space Needle's tophouse. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user James Vaughan (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) This sketched rendering of the Space Needle dates to April 1961 – one year before its opening. ImageCourtesy of Seattle Municipal Archives (Public Domain) + 7

AD Classics: Eiffel Tower / Gustave Eiffel

06:15 - 2 December, 2016
AD Classics: Eiffel Tower / Gustave Eiffel, © Wikimedia user Jebulon (Public Domain)
© Wikimedia user Jebulon (Public Domain)

The world had never seen anything like the graceful iron form that rose from Paris’ Champ de Mars in the late 1880s. The “Eiffel Tower,” built as a temporary installation for the Exposition Universelle de 1889, became an immediate sensation for its unprecedented appearance and extraordinary height. It has long outlasted its intended lifespan and become not only one of Paris’ most popular landmarks, but one of the most recognizable structures in human history.

AD Classics: Eiffel Tower / Gustave Eiffel Public Domain. ImageAugust 211888 Public Domain. ImageDecember 7 1887 AD Classics: Eiffel Tower / Gustave Eiffel + 11

AD Classics: Royal Basilica of Saint-Denis / Abbot Suger

04:00 - 2 December, 2016
AD Classics: Royal Basilica of Saint-Denis / Abbot Suger, West Façade. Image © Wikimedia user Thomas Clouet (licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0)
West Façade. Image © Wikimedia user Thomas Clouet (licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0)

The origin of Gothic architecture, a style which defined Europe in the later Middle Ages, can be traced to a single abbey church in the northern suburbs of Paris. The Basilique royale de Saint-Denis (Royal Basilica of Saint-Denis), constructed on the site of an abbey and reliquary established in Carolingian (800-888 CE) times, was partially rebuilt under the administration of Abbot Suger in the early 12th Century; these additions—utilizing a variety of structural and stylistic techniques developed in the construction of Romanesque churches in the preceding centuries—would set medieval architecture on a new course that would carry it through the rest of the epoch.

Félix Benoist (Public Domain). ImageEngraving (1861) Rose Window. Image © Wikimedia user Diliff (licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0) Tomb. Image © Wikimedia user Myrabella (licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0) West Façade Portal Detail. Image © Wikimedia user Myrabella (licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0) + 9