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AD Classics: Salk Institute / Louis Kahn

16:30 - 11 January, 2019
AD Classics: Salk Institute / Louis Kahn, © Liao Yusheng
© Liao Yusheng

This article was originally published on August 27, 2017. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

In 1959, Jonas Salk, the man who had discovered the vaccine for polio, approached Louis I. Kahn with a project. The city of San Diego, California had gifted him with a picturesque site in La Jolla along the Pacific coast, where Salk intended to found and build a biological research center. Salk, whose vaccine had already had a profound impact on the prevention of the disease, was adamant that the design for this new facility should explore the implications of the sciences for humanity. He also had a broader, if no less profound, directive for his chosen architect: to “create a facility worthy of a visit by Picasso.” The result was the Salk Institute, a facility lauded for both its functionality and its striking aesthetics – and the manner in which each supports the other.[1,2]

© Liao Yusheng © Liao Yusheng © Liao Yusheng © Liao Yusheng + 20

AD Classics: Radio City Music Hall / Edward Durell Stone & Donald Deskey

22:00 - 26 October, 2018
AD Classics: Radio City Music Hall / Edward Durell Stone & Donald Deskey, Courtesy of Flickr user Erik Drost
Courtesy of Flickr user Erik Drost

This article was originally published on July 29, 2016. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

Upon opening its doors for the first time on a rainy winter’s night in 1932, the Radio City Music Hall in Manhattan was proclaimed so extraordinarily beautiful as to need no performers at all. The first built component of the massive Rockefeller Center, the Music Hall has been the world’s largest indoor theater for over eighty years. With its elegant Art Deco interiors and complex stage machinery, the theater defied tradition to set a new standard for modern entertainment venues that remains to this day.

Courtesy of Flickr user Ed Schipul Courtesy of Flickr user Roger Courtesy of Flickr user Steve Huang Courtesy of Flickr user Mattia Panciroli + 10

AD Classics: TWA Flight Center / Eero Saarinen

22:00 - 21 October, 2018
AD Classics: TWA Flight Center / Eero Saarinen, © Cameron Blaylock
© Cameron Blaylock

This article was originally published on June 16, 2016. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

Built in the early days of airline travel, the TWA Terminal is a concrete symbol of the rapid technological transformations which were fueled by the outset of the Second World War. Eero Saarinen sought to capture the sensation of flight in all aspects of the building, from a fluid and open interior, to the wing-like concrete shell of the roof. At TWA’s behest, Saarinen designed more than a functional terminal; he designed a monument to the airline and to aviation itself.

This AD Classic features a series of exclusive images by Cameron Blaylock, photographed in May 2016. Blaylock used a Contax camera and Zeiss lenses with Rollei black and white film to reflect camera technology of the 1960s.

© Cameron Blaylock © Cameron Blaylock © Cameron Blaylock © Cameron Blaylock + 26

AD Classics: Bergisel Ski Jump / Zaha Hadid Architects

22:00 - 20 October, 2018
AD Classics: Bergisel Ski Jump / Zaha Hadid Architects, ©  Helene Binet
©  Helene Binet

This article was originally published on May 9, 2016. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

Situated on the peak of Bergisel Mountain above the picturesque alpine city of Innsbruck, Austria, the Bergisel Ski Jump represents the contemporary incarnation of a historic landmark. Designed by Zaha Hadid between 1999 and 2002, the Ski Jump is a study in formal expression: its sweeping lines and minimalist aesthetic create a sense of graceful, high-speed motion, reflecting the dynamic sensation of a ski jump in a monumental structure that stands above the historic center of Innsbruck and the mountain slopes around.

©  Helene Binet Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects ©  Helene Binet + 27

AD Classics: Empire State Building / Shreve, Lamb and Harmon

22:00 - 19 October, 2018
AD Classics: Empire State Building / Shreve, Lamb and Harmon, (2005). Image © Wikimedia user robertpaulyoung (licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0)
(2005). Image © Wikimedia user robertpaulyoung (licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0)

This article was originally published on December 5, 2016. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

Even in Manhattan—a sea of skyscrapers—the Empire State Building towers over its neighbours. Since its completion in 1931 it has been one of the most iconic architectural landmarks in the United States, standing as the tallest structure in the world until the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center were constructed in Downtown Manhattan four decades later. Its construction in the early years of the Great Depression, employing thousands of workers and requiring vast material resources, was driven by more than commercial interest: the Empire State Building was to be a monument to the audacity of the United States of America, “a land which reached for the sky with its feet on the ground.”[1]

Image via Wikimedia (Public Domain). ImageLaying of the tower's foundations The pinnacle of the tower. Image © Wikimedia user David Corby (licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0) Image via Wikimedia (Public Domain). ImageUnder construction Image via Wikimedia (Public Domain). ImageUnder construction + 6

AD Classics: Vitra Design Museum / Gehry Partners

22:00 - 18 October, 2018
AD Classics: Vitra Design Museum / Gehry Partners, © Liao Yusheng
© Liao Yusheng

This article was originally published on April 27, 2017. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

Even at the Vitra Campus in Weil-am-Rhein—a collection of furniture factories, offices, showrooms, and galleries, many of which are the products of iconic architects—the Vitra Design Museum stands out as exceptional. With its sculptural form composed of interconnected curving volumes, the museum is the unmistakable work of Frank Gehry – an architect who has built a legacy for himself upon such structures. What may not be immediately apparent is the crossroads that this serene white building represents: it was in this project at the southwestern corner of Germany (close to the Swiss border) that Gehry first realized a structure in the vein of his now signature style.

© Liao Yusheng © Liao Yusheng © Liao Yusheng © Liao Yusheng + 10

AD Classics: Venice Hospital / Le Corbusier

22:00 - 16 October, 2018
AD Classics: Venice Hospital / Le Corbusier, Model. Image © Fondation Le Corbusier (FLC/ADAGP)
Model. Image © Fondation Le Corbusier (FLC/ADAGP)

This article was originally published on August 15, 2016. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

Le Corbusier made an indelible mark on Modernist architecture when he declared “une maison est une machine-à-habiter” (“a house is a machine for living”). His belief that architecture should be as efficient as machinery resulted in such proposals such as the Plan Voisin, a proposal to transform the Second Empire boulevards of Paris into a series of cruciform skyscrapers rising from a grid of freeways and open parks.[1] Not all of Le Corbusier’s concepts, however, were geared toward such radical urban transformation. His 1965 proposal for a hospital in Venice, Italy, was notable in its attempt at seeking aesthetic harmony with its unique surroundings: an attempt not to eradicate history, but to translate it.

Model. Image © Fondation Le Corbusier (FLC/ADAGP) Plan Plan Situation Plan + 7

AD Classics: Vitra Fire Station / Zaha Hadid

22:00 - 12 October, 2018
AD Classics: Vitra Fire Station / Zaha Hadid, © Christian Richters
© Christian Richters

This article was originally published on April 21, 2016. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

Although Zaha Hadid began her remarkable architectural career in the late 1970s, it would not be until the 1990s that her work would lift out her drawings and paintings to be realized in physical form. The Vitra Fire Station, designed for the factory complex of the same name in Weil-am-Rhein, Germany, was the among the first of Hadid’s design projects to be built. The building’s obliquely intersecting concrete planes, which serve to shape and define the street running through the complex, represent the earliest attempt to translate Hadid’s fantastical, powerful conceptual drawings into a functional architectural space.

©  Helene Binet ©  Helene Binet ©  Helene Binet ©  Helene Binet + 24

AD Classics: Dutch Parliament Extension / OMA

22:00 - 11 October, 2018
AD Classics: Dutch Parliament Extension / OMA, via OMA
via OMA

This article was originally published on April 22, 2016. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

Designed shortly before Zaha Hadid left the Office of Metropolitan Architecture (OMA)—led by Rem Koolhaas—to found her practice, Zaha Hadid Architects, the proposed extension for the Dutch Parliament firmly rejects the notion that imitation is the sincerest form of flattery. Rather than mimic the style of the existing historic buildings, OMA elected to pay tribute to the complex’s accretive construction by inserting a collection of visibly postmodern, geometric elements. These new buildings, unapologetic products of the late 1970s, would have served as unmistakable indicators of the passage of time, creating a graphic reminder of the Parliament’s long history.

"The Final Push". Image Courtesy of A.D.A. EDITA Tokyo Co., Ltd. Courtesy of A.D.A. EDITA Tokyo Co., Ltd. "The Podium: Accommodation for Orgies of Speech". Image Courtesy of A.D.A. EDITA Tokyo Co., Ltd. Elevations. Image Courtesy of A.D.A. EDITA Tokyo Co., Ltd. + 9

AD Classics: Grundtvig's Church / Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint

21:30 - 10 October, 2018
AD Classics: Grundtvig's Church / Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint, Courtesy of Flickr user Flemming Ibsen
Courtesy of Flickr user Flemming Ibsen

This article was originally published on July 28, 2016. To read the stories behind other celebrated architecture projects, visit our AD Classics section.

Six million yellow bricks on a hilltop just outside Copenhagen form one of the world’s foremost, if not perhaps comparatively unknown, Expressionist monuments. Grundtvigs Kirke (“Grundtvig’s Church”), designed by architect Peder Vilhelm Jensen Klint, was built between 1921 and 1940 as a memorial to N.F.S. Grundtvig – a famed Danish pastor, philosopher, historian, hymnist, and politician of the 19th century.[1] Jensen Klint, inspired by Grundtvig’s humanist interpretation of Christianity, merged the scale and stylings of a Gothic cathedral with the aesthetics of a Danish country church to create a landmark worthy of its namesake.[2]

It was decided in 1912 that Grundtvig, who had passed away in 1873, had been so significant to Danish history and culture that he merited a national monument. Two competitions were held in 1912 and 1913, bringing in numerous design submissions for statues, decorative columns, and architectural memorials.[3]

Courtesy of Flickr user Flemming Ibsen Courtesy of Flickr user Rune Brimer Courtesy of Flickr user noona11 Courtesy of Flickr user Flemming Ibsen + 18

AD Classics: World's Columbian Exposition / Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted

16:30 - 9 October, 2018
AD Classics: World's Columbian Exposition / Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted, Viewed from the far end of the Great Basin, the Administration Building looms over the court of honor and the surrounding great buildings of the fair. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)
Viewed from the far end of the Great Basin, the Administration Building looms over the court of honor and the surrounding great buildings of the fair. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain)

The United States had made an admirable showing for itself at the very first World’s Fair, the Crystal Palace Exhibition, held in the United Kingdom in 1851. British newspapers were unreserved in their praise, declaring America’s displayed inventions to be more ingenious and useful than any others at the Fair; the Liverpool Times asserted “no longer to be ridiculed, much less despised.” Unlike various European governments, which spent lavishly on their national displays in the exhibitions that followed, the US Congress was hesitant to contribute funds, forcing exhibitors to rely on individuals for support. Interest in international exhibitions fell during the nation’s bloody Civil War; things recovered quickly enough in the wake of the conflict, however, that the country could host the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition in 1876. Celebrating both American patriotism and technological progress, the Centennial Exhibition was a resounding success which set the stage for another great American fair: the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893.[1]

Courtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain) Although the building itself was handsome, the exhibits of the United States Government Building failed to entice many of the fair’s visitors. In the foreground stands the Ho-O-Den, a replica medieval Japanese palace. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user RillkeBot (Public Domain) Courtesy of Wikimedia user scewing (Public Domain A map of the 1893 Exposition shows how much of the fair’s buildings were laid out on axis with the court of honor. ImageCourtesy of Wikimedia user scewing (Public Domain) + 16

AD Classics: Master Plan for Chandigarh / Le Corbusier

16:30 - 6 October, 2018
AD Classics: Master Plan for Chandigarh / Le Corbusier, © Laurian Ghinitoiu
© Laurian Ghinitoiu

On August 15, 1947, on the eve of India’s independence from the United Kingdom, came a directive which would transform the subcontinent for the next six decades. In order to safeguard the country’s Muslim population from the Hindu majority, the departing colonial leaders set aside the northwestern and eastern portions of the territory for their use. Many of the approximately 100 million Muslims living scattered throughout India were given little more than 73 days to relocate to these territories, the modern-day nations of Pakistan and Bangladesh. As the borders for the new countries were drawn by Sir Cyril Radcliffe (an Englishman whose ignorance of Indian history and culture was perceived, by the colonial government, as an assurance of his impartiality), the state of Punjab was bisected between India and Pakistan, the latter of which retained ownership of the state capital of Lahore.[1] It was in the wake of this loss that Punjab would found a new state capital: one which would not only serve the logistical requirements of the state, but make an unequivocal statement to the entire world that a new India—modernized, prosperous, and independent—had arrived.

© Laurian Ghinitoiu © Laurian Ghinitoiu © Laurian Ghinitoiu © Laurian Ghinitoiu + 59

AD Classics: Neviges Mariendom / Gottfried Böhm

08:00 - 1 September, 2017
AD Classics: Neviges Mariendom / Gottfried Böhm, © Laurian Ghinitoiu
© Laurian Ghinitoiu

Standing like a concrete mountain amid a wood, the jagged concrete volume of the Neviges Mariendom [“Cathedral of Saint Mary of Neviges”] towers over its surroundings. Built on a popular pilgrimage site in western Germany, the Mariendom is only the latest iteration of a monastery that has drawn countless visitors and pilgrims from across the world for centuries. Unlike its medieval and Baroque predecessors, however, the unabashedly Modernist Mariendom reflects a significant shift in the outlook of its creators: a new way of thinking for both the people of post-war Germany and the wider Catholic Church.

© Yuri Palmin © Yuri Palmin © Laurian Ghinitoiu © Laurian Ghinitoiu + 22

AD Classics: The Entenza House (Case Study #9) / Charles & Ray Eames, Eero Saarinen & Associates

04:00 - 14 August, 2017
AD Classics: The Entenza House (Case Study #9) / Charles & Ray Eames, Eero Saarinen & Associates, Case Study House No. 9. (1950) / Julius Shulman Photography Archive. Image © J. Paul Getty Trust. Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (2004.R.10)
Case Study House No. 9. (1950) / Julius Shulman Photography Archive. Image © J. Paul Getty Trust. Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (2004.R.10)

Nestled in the verdant seaside hills of the Pacific Palisades in southern California, the Entenza House is the ninth of the famous Case Study Houses built between 1945 and 1962. With a vast, open-plan living room that connects to the backyard through floor-to-ceiling glass sliding doors, the house brings its natural surroundings into a metal Modernist box, allowing the two to coexist as one harmonious space.

Like its peers in the Case Study Program, the house was designed not only to serve as a comfortable and functional residence, but to showcase how modular steel construction could be used to create low-cost housing for a society still recovering from the the Second World War. The man responsible for initiating the program was John Entenza, Editor of the magazine Arts and Architecture. The result was a series of minimalist homes that employed steel frames and open plans to reflect the more casual and independent way of life that had arisen in the automotive age.[1]

Case Study House No. 9. (1950) / Julius Shulman Photography Archive. Image © J. Paul Getty Trust. Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (2004.R.10) Case Study House No. 9. (1950) / Julius Shulman Photography Archive. Image © J. Paul Getty Trust. Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (2004.R.10) Case Study House No. 9. (1950) / Julius Shulman Photography Archive. Image © J. Paul Getty Trust. Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (2004.R.10) Case Study House No. 9. (1950) / Julius Shulman Photography Archive. Image © J. Paul Getty Trust. Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (2004.R.10) + 28

AD Classics: Al Shaheed Monument / Saman Kamal

04:00 - 11 August, 2017
AD Classics: Al Shaheed Monument / Saman Kamal, © Steve McCurry
© Steve McCurry

It is difficult to imagine how the serene curves of the Al Shaheed Monument, reflected in a glimmering lake in the ancient city of Baghdad, could have been built in a time of conflict and genocide. Commissioned by Saddam Hussein’s regime as a memorial for the fallen soldiers in the Iraq-Iran War of the 1980s, this graceful structure exudes a quiet beauty that belies the turmoil of its birth.

AD Classics: Paris Métro Entrance / Hector Guimard

04:00 - 10 August, 2017
A typical station entrance in the Paris Métro. ImageVia <a href=“https://pixabay.com/”>Pixabay</a> licensed under <a href=“https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/deed.en“>CC0 1.0 (Public Domain)</a>
A typical station entrance in the Paris Métro. ImageVia Pixabay licensed under CC0 1.0 (Public Domain)

Scattered throughout the streets of Paris, the elegant Art Nouveau entrances to the Métropolitain (Métro) subway system stand as a collective monument to the city’s Belle Époque of the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. With their sinuous ironwork patterned after stylized plants, the Métro entrances now count among the most celebrated architectural emblems of the city; however, due to the city’s wariness in the face of industrialization and architect Hector Guimard’s decision to utilize a then-novel architectural aesthetic, it would take decades before the entrances would earn the illustrious reputation that they now enjoy.

During the first construction phases, tracks were dug just below street level. Via <a href=“https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paris_Metro_construction_03300288-3.jpg”>National Library of France</a> licensed under Public Domain. Image Courtesy of National Library of France Replica Métro Station entrance in Chicago, USA © <a href=“https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2012-07-21_7000x4912_chicago_art_nouveau_metra.jpg”>Wikimedia Commons user J. Crocker</a> (2012) licensed under Public Domain. Image Courtesy of J. Crocker Place du Bastille (Carte postale ancienne éditée par les Magasins Réunis). © <a href=“https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Magasins_R%C3%A9unis_171_-_PARIS_-_Station_du_M%C3%A9tropolitain_-_Place_de_la_Bastille.JPG”>Claude_Villetaneuse</a> (1908) licensed under Public Domain. Image Courtesy of Claude Villetaneuse Place du Bastille (Carte postale ancienne éditée par les Magasins Réunis). © <a href=“https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Magasins_R%C3%A9unis_171_-_PARIS_-_Station_du_M%C3%A9tropolitain_-_Place_de_la_Bastille.JPG”>Claude_Villetaneuse</a> (1908) licensed under Public Domain. Image Courtesy of Claude Villetaneuse + 10

AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM)

07:00 - 1 August, 2017
AD Classics: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library / Gordon Bunshaft (SOM), © <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beinecke_Rare_Book_%26_Manuscript_Library#/media/File:Beinecke-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-Yale-University-Hewitt-Quadrangle-New-Haven-Connecticut-Apr-2014-a.jpg">Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack</a> licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY 4.0</a>. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack
© Wikimedia Commons user Gunnar Klack licensed under CC BY 4.0. Image Courtesy of Gunnar Klack

Cloistered by a protective shell of stone, the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library is one of the world’s foremost collections of rare manuscripts. Opened in 1963, the library is renowned for its translucent marble façade and the world-renowned glass book tower sheltered within – a dramatic arrangement resulting from the particular requirements of a repository for literary artifacts. This unique design, very much in the Modernist lineage but in contrast to the revivalist styles of the rest of Yale’s campus, has only become appreciated thanks to the passage of time; the same bold choices which are now celebrated were once seen as a cause for contempt and outrage.

© Ezra Stoller/Esto © Ezra Stoller/Esto © Ezra Stoller/Esto © Ezra Stoller/Esto + 15

AD Classics: Red House / William Morris and Philip Webb

04:30 - 16 June, 2017
AD Classics: Red House / William Morris and Philip Webb, The L-shaped footprint of the building allows it to focus in on the garden. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Gabrielle Ludlow (licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
The L-shaped footprint of the building allows it to focus in on the garden. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Gabrielle Ludlow (licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

In the heart of a suburb just east of London stands an incongruous red brick villa. With its pointed arched window frames and towering chimneys, the house was designed to appear  like a relic of the Middle Ages. In reality, its vintage dates to the 1860’s. This is Red House, the Arts and Crafts home of artist William Morris and his family. Built as a rebuttal to an increasingly industrialized age, Red House’s message has been both diminished by the passage of time and, over the course of the centuries, been cast in greater relief against its context.

This stained glass window, depicting Love and Hate, was one of many designed by friends and family of William Morris throughout Red House. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user KotomiCreations (licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0) The painted front door is undeniably medieval in character; the stained glass window panes are not original. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user KotomiCreations (licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0) Courtesy of Flickr user KotomiCreations (licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0) The L-shaped footprint of the building allows it to focus in on the garden. ImageCourtesy of Flickr user Gabrielle Ludlow (licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) + 14