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Eduardo Souza

Architect and Urbanist graduated from the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC). Master in Urban Planning, History and Architecture Program, also at UFSC, with research related to the theme of mobility and urban sprawl. Has been collaborating in ArchDaily Brasil since 2012 and is currently Editor of Materials.

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How to Choose Light Bulbs for an Architectural Project

Walking into an electrical store can be intimidating. At first glance all the lights are on, and the thousands of chandeliers and lamps are blinding. When you walk toward the lamps, you see shelves with dozens of options, shapes, colors, prices, and uses. In each package, informational tables with numbers that seem to make no sense at all. Lumens, color temperature, wattage. There are so many confusing terms. But before you give up on everything and rush back with the cheapest option, turning the lamp on only for it to make your house or the house you designed feel like a sinister back-country funeral home, some basic information can help you a lot. We know that good lighting design can greatly improve a building or even its occupant's productivity. And poorly designed lighting can ruin it or negatively affect its occupants. To help out, we've gathered some information that can help you the next time a light bulb burns out in your home.

Poorly Designed Acoustics in Schools Affect Learning Efficiency and Well-being

Few things irritate us more than exposure to excessive noise or inability to hear what we need to hear. Whether it's a nearby construction site, highway traffic, air conditioning, or a neighbor learning saxophone, research shows that noise can contribute to cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, headaches, hormonal changes, sleep disturbance, reduced physical and mental performance, and the reduction of well-being. On the other hand, in an acoustically "comfortable" environment, in addition to listening to what we want, we focus better and feel calmer.

The concern about creating acoustically comfortable environments is often relegated to cinemas, concert halls and recording studios. But it is particularly important in learning environments, such as classrooms, as it directly influences the teaching-learning relationship. Acoustic discomfort can harm the process of knowledge acquisition, interfering with attention and worsening student-teacher communication.

The Threshold, The Secondary School / Paralelo Colectivo. Image © Luis Barandiarán Sandal Magna Community Primary School / Sarah Wigglesworth Architects. Image © Mark Hadden Photography Sandringham Primary School / Walters & Cohen. Image © Dennis Gilbert / VIEW Sonia Delaunay School / ADEN architectes. Image © Sergio Grazia + 9

How BIM Can Make Building Renovations and Retrofits More Efficient

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an increasingly common acronym among architects. Most offices and professionals are already migrating or planning to switch to this system, which represents digitally the physical and functional characteristics of a building, integrating various information about all components present in a project. Through BIM software it is possible to digitally create one or more accurate virtual models of a building, which provides greater cost control and efficiency in the work. It is also possible to simulate the building, understanding its behavior before the start of construction and supporting the project throughout its phases, including after construction or dismantling and demolition.

Reforma do Mason Bros Warehouse / Warren and Mahoney. Image © Simon Devitt Reforma do Mason Bros Warehouse / Warren and Mahoney. Image © Simon Devitt © Bruce Damonte Novo Laboratório, Centro de Pesquisa e Fábrica / Marvel Architects. Image © David Sundberg | Esto + 9

The Versatility of Gabion Walls, From Infrastructure to Urban Furniture

Widely used in infrastructure, gabion walls are structures made of mesh metal cages filled with stones. These permeable walls use galvanized steel wire to withstand outdoor conditions. 

Bosque Altozano Club House / Parque Humano. Image Cortesia de Parque Humano BAH Restaurante Parkshopping / Tellini Vontobel Arquitetura. Image © Cristiano Bauce Restauración Paisajística del Vertedero de Residuos de la Vall d'en Joan / Batlle i Roig Arquitectes. Image © Jordi Surroca Mirador Asomo al Vacío. Image Cortesia de Loreto Mellado Medel + 62

Wooden Boards: Differences Between MDF, MDP, Plywood, and OSB

For some years now, wood has received an increasing amount of attention in the construction industry. With concerns raised about sustainability and the carbon footprint of buildings, new construction methods and innovative possibilities in the use of timber have developed rapidly. This interest in wood stems in part from its renewability, though this benefit is contingent on sustainable logging and the appropriate management of forests to be allowed to regenerate naturally. However, it is the versatility of wood that serves as the primary impetus for its widespread use. From boards, to beams, to floors, and even to thermal and acoustic tiles and insulators, wood can be used in several different stages of a single project and with different degrees of processing and finishing.

OSB. Image © ArchDaily Compensado. Image © ArchDaily Aglomerado. Image © ArchDaily MDF. Image © ArchDaily + 26

How Does Photovoltaic Energy Work?

Once restricted to space stations and satellites, photovoltaics are now gaining popularity and becoming an increasingly viable option. Every day, the sun releases an enormous amount of energy, far more than the entire population consumes. Being that the sun is a sustainable, renewable, and inexhaustible source for generating electricity, not using it seems almost counter-intuitive, especially considering the social and environmental impacts of other forms of energy generation. But the technology to create electricity from the sun is by no means simple and still has some limitations, the most significant being price. The following article attempts to explain some basic concepts about this process, and to highlight important considerations for designing a solar energy system. 

10 Frequently Asked Questions About Ceramic Tiles

Square, rectangular, hexagonal, matte, shiny. It's hard to think of a more versatile flooring material than tiles. They're also known for their high durability, ease of maintenance and installation, and are among the most common choices for covering floors and walls, whether wet or not. Following are 10 common questions about ceramic tiles, and their answers:

106 · Øki / elii. Image © Imagen Subliminal Casa Chuburná / Cabrera Arqs. Image © Tamara Uribe Veramonte 1602 / Taller David Dana . Image © Alessandro Bo Okana / Arkham Projects. Image © Tamara Uribe + 22

How to Design Comfortable and Efficient Offices: Meeting Spaces

Today's generation no longer sees work in the same way as previous generations. New company models and occupation possibilities have changed the spaces where people develop their professional activities. Working from home, from coworking spaces, or remotely from anywhere in the world is already a fairly common reality. But a number of companies still do not utilize or create spaces where their employees can work together, collaborating in the same environment. In addition to shared culture that companies often try to create, it is essential that the design of an office takes into account the needs and particularities of each type of work and encourages communication and interaction, while providing places for concentration and focus. As generations and corporate cultures change, it is natural for the office space to move away from traditional layouts with cubicles, tables, and meeting rooms.

Landing. Image Cortesia de Herman Miller Plaza. Image Cortesia de Herman Miller Meeting Space. Image Cortesia de Herman Miller Forum. Image Cortesia de Herman Miller + 21

How Will Home Automation Affect our Future?

Once restricted to luxury or super-tech buildings, home automation is proving to be an increasingly fundamental and affordable addition to architectural projects, whether to new buildings or renovations. While understanding how they operate can be extremely complex, the primary purpose of technology is to make life simpler, safer, and easier. By definition, home automation seeks to be globally intelligent, functioning as a system that facilitates processes without unnecessarily complicating the user's life. The idea is to connect devices, which in turn connect and talk through a centralized control unit, accessible by computers, tablets, and mobile phones. These include lights, appliances, electrical outlets, and heating and cooling systems, but also alarms, doors, windows, smoke detectors, surveillance cameras, and many other sensors and devices.

How to Design Safe Bathrooms for the Elderly

There exist frequent reports of toilet accidents, as they are often located in tight and slippery places. Although no one is immune to a slip after bathing, it is the elderly who suffer most from falls, and can often suffer serious injuries, sequelae, and functional limitations. Due to the natural reduction of reflexes and muscle mass, the higher the age group, the more prone to falls we become.

To provide more comfortable living conditions as users grow older, the environment must adapt to the new physical capabilities of its occupants. Making toilets safer is critical to reducing the risk of accidents and decreasing response time in the event of a fall. Here are some things to keep in mind when designing toilets for older people:

Residencia para Mayores en Mota del Cuervo (Cuenca) / GEED Arquitectos. Image © Alfredo Prados Covarrubias Residencia geriàtrica Mas Piteu / Estudi PSP Arquitectura. Image © Francisco Urrutia Residencia para Mayores en Mota del Cuervo (Cuenca) / GEED Arquitectos. Image © Alfredo Prados Covarrubias Housing for Elderly People in Huningue / Dominique Coulon & associés. Image © Eugene Pons + 11

How to Design Comfortable and Efficient Offices: Individual Workspaces

Many people's way of working has changed, but most offices remain the same.

However, innovating doesn't necessarily mean breaking down every wall and creating a play space; the design of an office must take into account the needs and details of each type of work separately. For every function, there are better and worse ways to organize spaces, and some configurations work better for certain activities but not for others. The most important consideration is that the workplace allows interactions while providing spaces for concentration and focus.

Clubhouse. Image Cortesia de Herman Miller Workshop. Image Cortesia de Herman Miller Haven. Image Cortesia de Herman Miller Jump Space. Image Cortesia de Herman Miller + 26

ArchDaily Topics - September: Work

The way we approach work has changed, and that is undeniable. Our profession no longer defines us as much as past generations, and new forms of work have been incorporated into everyday life. While technology has revolutionized our ability to perform a variety of daily tasks, many professions have disappeared, some will probably not last much longer and, while others were created.

How Do Double-Skin Façades Work?

Double skin façades. Almost a self-explanatory name for façade systems consisting of two layers, usually glass, wherein air flows through the intermediate cavity. This space (which can vary from 20 cm to a few meters) acts as insulation against extreme temperatures, winds, and sound, improving the building's thermal efficiency for both high and low temperatures. Perhaps one of the most famous examples of double-skin facades is Foster+Partners' 30 St Mary Ax Building, "The Gherkin."

The airflow through the intermediate cavity can occur naturally or be mechanically driven, and the two glass layers may include sun protection devices.

© Cemal Emden © Martin Van der Wal © Sergio Grazia © Cemal Emden + 11