One of the United States' leading architects of the Modernist era, Paul Marvin Rudolph (October 23, 1918 – August 8, 1997) was known for his contributions to modernism throughout the latter half of the 20th century. He served as the Chair of Yale University’s School of Architecture for six years and famously designed the Yale Art and Architecture Building, one of the earliest examples of Brutalist architecture in the United States.
Born in Elkton, Kentucky, Rudolph spent most of his youth in Alabama and graduated with a bachelor’s degree in Architecture from Alabama Polytechnic Institute (now Auburn University) in 1940. After working for a year in Alabama, he briefly attended Harvard University’s Graduate School of Design where he studied under Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius. He spent his formative years at Harvard, studying alongside many other preeminent architects of the 20th century including IM Pei and Philip Johnson. He then left school for three years, spending World War II at the Brooklyn Navy Yard before returning to Harvard and graduating with his master’s in 1947.
After graduation, he moved to Florida where he became one of the most famous architects of The Sarasota School of Architecture, a regional post-war style that is characterized by its careful consideration of local climate and terrain. After working for four years with Ralph Twitchell, Rudolph started his own practice in 1951 and garnered a reputation for his Florida houses. By the late 1950s, he began receiving commissions for larger projects, simultaneously beginning his term as dean of the Yale School of Architecture in 1958 where he taught notable architects including Muzharul Islam, Norman Foster, and Richard Rogers.
Although he is most often recognized for his concrete structures, when Brutalism fell out of favor in the United States during the 1970s, his style evolved. During this period he designed numerous glass office towers around the world, including the Lippo Centre Station of MTR in Hong Kong. Although his career in the United States began a slow decline in the 1970s, his large-scale projects in Southeast Asia brought him international attention.
Paul Rudolph is remembered for his landmark buildings across the globe as well as his career-spanning archive, which was donated to the Library of Congress. At the time of his death, he also donated all of his intellectual property rights to the American people, a gift which helped to establish the Center for Architecture, Design, and Engineering at the Library of Congress.
Learn more about some of Paul Rudolph’s most notable projects via the thumbnails below: