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Bilbao Effect: The Latest Architecture and News

Shrinking Cities: The Rise and Fall of Urban Environments

Urban planning is often based on the assumption of ongoing demographic and economic growth, but as some environments face urban shrinkage, a new array of strategies comes into play. The shrinking city phenomenon is a process of urban decline with complex causes ranging from deindustrialization, internal migration, population decline, or depletion of natural resources. Referencing the existing research on the topic, the following showcases approaches to this phenomenon in different urban environments, highlighting the need to develop new urban design frameworks to address the growing challenge.

<a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Altena_Burg_20051030.jpg">Dr.G.Schmitz</a>, <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0">CC BY-SA 3.0</a>, via Wikimedia Commons. ImageAltena, former industrial city in GermanySetnom from Chile, CC BY 2.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0>, via Wikimedia Commons. ImageSewell mining town in ChileAnina, mining town in Romania. Image © Tudor ConstantinescuHristina Stojanovic. ImageThe mining city of Bor+ 6

Michael Sorkin's 'The Next Helsinki' Competition Attracts Over 200 Entries

The organisers behind The Next Helsinki, a competition masterminded by architect and critic Michael Sorkin, have announced that they have received over 200 international entries. Launched as an alternative to the controversial Guggenheim Helsinki project, the competition called upon architects, urbanists, artists, and environmentalists to imagine how Helsinki and the South Harbour site allotted to the proposed museum could be transformed for the maximum benefit of the city’s residents and visitors.

Architecture, Economics and Aquariums: Can ICM Revive the Bilbao Effect in Asia?

The "Bilbao effect" was once viewed as the savior of the other cities; a way for post-industrial cities in the 1990s and 2000s to not only replace their economic reliance on failing industry with tourism, but to reinvent themselves as capitals of High Culture, enriching both body and soul. This has long since ceased to be the case, and many now see it instead as an ironic monument to hubris. But while architecture in the west is attempting to find a viable successor, rapidly expanding economies in Asia and South East Asia seem poised to embark on a new wave of architectural and cultural flourishes designed to attract tourists and Thai Baht.

Avia Park, Moscow. Image Courtesy of ICMAquaMundo, Santo Dominigo. Image Courtesy of ICMMardan Palace, Antalya. Image Courtesy of ICMLife Support, Antalya. Image Courtesy of ICM+ 8

Michael Sorkin On The Guggenheim, Museum Culture, and "The Next Helsinki" Competition

Aside from attracting a huge level of media interest, the record-breaking competition to design the Guggenheim Museum's planned outpost in Helsinki also generated a significant level of criticism - not least from Michael Sorkin and his collaborators, who launched a counter-competition seeking alternative suggestions for how the site could be used. In this article, originally published on Metropolis Magazine as "'We Mean to Be Provocateurs': Michael Sorkin on the Next Helsinki Competition," Zachary Edelson interviews Sorkin on his reaction to the Guggenheim's shortlist, his hopes for his own competition, and the critical role that museums play in the worlds of both art and architecture.

The reverberations of the Bilbao Effect, where a prize museum infuses a region with prosperity and global cache, have concentrated on an unlikely city: the Finnish capital of Helsinki.

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation is famous for its Fifth Avenue museum, but its 1997 Frank Gehry-designed Bilbao outpost famously catapulted its small Basque host city to new levels of international renown. The city’s tourism revenue quickly helped recoup the museum’s extensive costs: $100 million for design and construction, subsidies towards a $12 million annual budget, $50 million for an acquisitions fund, and $20 million to the Guggenheim for its name, curatorial services, and the use of parts of its collection. Within three years, visitors’ spending had garnered $110 million and by 2013 more than 1 million had entered the gleaming metallic structure. Many have tried to replicate Bilbao’s success but opposition against such massive expenditures always looms. In this case, it has manifested in a rival competition led by New York-based architect and writer Michael Sorkin and titled The Next Helsinki.

A Better Way for Sydney than the Bilbao Effect

In Sydney, a recent discussion about "Cultural Precinct Planning" hosted by the City Government has raised important questions about how the city can compete in the global cultural arms race. However, Sara Anne Best thinks it raised all the wrong questions. Originally posted on Australian Design Review as "Cultural Ribbon or Coastal Connections" this article argues that Sydney, with a culture and tourism industry so focused on outdoor leisure, could find a more unique way of attracting attention which includes the wider metropolitan area more than the usual city centre cultural hub, asking: "With three of the city’s iconic beaches currently undergoing renewal, what is the role of the seaside CBD in the context of Sydney’s cultural identity?" Find out the answer after the break.

The Kastrup Sea Bath in Copenhagen, by White arkitekter, could serve as a model for Sydney's more outdoor culture. Image © Robert MartinInstitutional outposts, like the Moderna Museet in Malmö, could serve as a model for cultural destinations outside the city centre, and closer to the tourist draw of the beaches. Image © Åke E:son LindmanThe Kastrup Sea Bath in Copenhagen, by White arkitekter, could serve as a model for Sydney's more outdoor culture. Image © Robert MartinThe Kastrup Sea Bath in Copenhagen, by White arkitekter, could serve as a model for Sydney's more outdoor culture. Image © Robert Martin+ 7