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How Zurich's Understated Night Lighting Strategy Enhances Local Identity

09:30 - 7 June, 2017
How Zurich's Understated Night Lighting Strategy Enhances Local Identity, Utoquai waterfront illumination, Zürich. Photo by Juliet Haller. Image © Opticalight
Utoquai waterfront illumination, Zürich. Photo by Juliet Haller. Image © Opticalight

While many cities strive for a spectacular appearance at night, Zurich follows a modest strategy for nocturnal illumination. Numerous urban centers in the world are oversaturated in the evening, with individual buildings calling for attention through bright light, harsh contrasts, or colorful façade lighting. In contrast, the Zurich master plan for lighting has focused on an overall image of sensitive light levels with white light. But this nocturnal presence far from simple design, and is instead based on detailed urban studies and precise, customized projections, where technology is discretely hidden in favor of authentic culture.

Waterfront illumination of Stadthausquai with Fraumünster Church and St. Peter Church, Zürich. Photo by Benno Tobler. Image © Stadt Zürich Lighting of Stadthausquai with Fraumünster Church and St. Peter. Photo by Juliet Haller. Image © Stadt Zürich Façade lighting with projection at Zurich Opera House at Sechseläutenplatz. Photo by Juliet Haller. Image © Stadt Zürich Night view of Rudolf Brun Bridge. Photo by Georg Aerni. Image © Stadt Zürich +12

Fluid Luminosity: The Architectural Lighting of Zaha Hadid

06:00 - 31 March, 2017
Leeza SOHO, construction 2017, Beijing / China. Image © MIR
Leeza SOHO, construction 2017, Beijing / China. Image © MIR

Zaha Hadid's projects are remarkable not only for her innovative way of handling tangible materials but also for her imagination regarding the medium of light. Her theories of fragmentation and fluidity are now well-known design techniques which enabled her form-finding. However, her advances in using light to render her architecture have often been neglected—even though they became an essential element in revealing and interpreting her architecture. The three-decade transition from minimal light lines at her early Vitra Fire Station to the world's tallest atrium at the Leeza SOHO skyscraper, which collects an abundance of daylight, shows the remarkable development of Zaha Hadid’s luminous legacy.

Heydar Aliyev Center, 2013, Baku / Azerbaijan. Image © Hélène Binet Nordpark Railway Station, 2007, Innsbruck / Austria. Image © <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hungerburgbahn-Bergstation.JPG'>Wikimedia user Hafelekar</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en'>CC BY-SA 3.0</a> MAXXI Museum, 2009, Rome / Italy. Image © Iwan Baan Phaeno Science Center, 2005, Wolfsburg / Germany. Image © Werner Huthmacher +13

Layers and Lighting: How Top Architects Design Fashion Stores to Turn Heads by Day and Night

09:30 - 1 February, 2017

Flagship stores excite both fashion shoppers and designers alike due to their role as visionary laboratories for the latest trends and stimulating retail experiences. Architects have developed various ways to dress haute couture stores, from distinctive icons in the day to seductive night-time images. The images accompanying this article, created by the Portuguese architect and illustrator André Chiote, help to explore the graphic potential of famous brands like Dior, Prada and Tod's. The illustrations clearly reveal the various techniques of playing with diaphanous layers, intimate views inside or the contrast of light and shadow.

Veiled in Brilliance: How Reflective Facades Have Changed Modern Architecture

09:30 - 12 October, 2016
Veiled in Brilliance: How Reflective Facades Have Changed Modern Architecture, Reflections on glass façade. Elbphilharmonie, Hamburg. Architects: Herzog & de Meuron. Image © Frank Thiel
Reflections on glass façade. Elbphilharmonie, Hamburg. Architects: Herzog & de Meuron. Image © Frank Thiel

Even as modernism promoted the transparency of glass architecture, many within the movement were conscious of the monotony of large glass facades, with even Mies van der Rohe using elements such as his trademark mullions to break up his facades. But in the years since, countless uniform structural glazing skyscrapers have emerged and bored urban citizens. In response to this, unconventional reinterpretations of facades have gained interest.

Accompanied by the belief that light and brilliance could help in creating iconic architecture and a better human world, glass and metal have been innovatively transformed to create crystalline images. As a result, the locus of meaning in architecture has shifted from the internal space-form towards the external surface.

When Droplets Create Space: A Look at Liquid Architecture

09:30 - 15 September, 2016
When Droplets Create Space: A Look at Liquid Architecture, Light in Water, 2015. Paris. Architects: DGT Architects. Photographer: <a href='http://www.takuji-shimmura.com/'>Takuji Shimmura</a>. Image © DGT Architects
Light in Water, 2015. Paris. Architects: DGT Architects. Photographer: Takuji Shimmura. Image © DGT Architects

Throughout the past century, architecture's relationship with water has developed along a variety of different paths. With his “Fallingwater” house, for example, the American master Frank Lloyd Wright confronted the dramatic flow of water with strong horizontal lines to heighten the experience of nature. Since then, architecture's use of water has become more varied and complex. A space made almost purely of water emerged with Isamu Noguchi's design at the Osaka World Expo: glistening water appeared to fall from nowhere and glowed in the dark. Later with digitalization and fluid forms as design parameters, the focus shifted towards liquid architecture made of water and light. The interpretations have ranged from architectural forms modeled after literal drops of water, like Bernhard Franken´s visionary “Bubble” for BMW, to spectacular walk-in installations made of lines of water, transformed into pixels by light.

Icelandic Pavilion. Hannover, Expo 2000. Image © Thomas Schielke Blur Building. Exposition Pavilion: Swiss Expo, Yverdon-Les-Bains, 2002. Architects: Diller Scofidio + Renfro. Image © Diller Scofidio + Renfro Olafur Eliasson: The reflective corridor, Draft to stop the free fall, 2002. (Der reflektierende Korridor, Entwurf zum Stoppen des freien Falls, 2002). Photographer: Werner J. Hannappel. Courtesy of Centre for International Light Art Unna, Germany. Image © 2002 Olafur Eliasson Luce Tempo Luogo, 2011. Milano. Architects: DGT Architects. Photographer: Daici Ano. Image © DGT Architects +20

From Productivism to Scenography: The Relighting of Norman Foster's Hongkong and Shanghai Bank

10:30 - 6 July, 2016

Three decades ago the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank (HSBC) Headquarters by Norman Foster emerged onto the architectural seen as an exemplary product of industrial design. The open layout with its exposed steel structure generated a powerful corporate identity for the bank. But the restrained atmosphere of white architectural lighting and the lack of distinctive façade lighting has lost its attractiveness after sunset. Now the colorful and dynamic relighting presents a remarkable example of how an architectural icon has shifted from a productivist ideology towards a scenographic image. To the western observer the multicolored light language may give off a playful impression, but to the local culture the transformation evokes grandiosity.

Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters, Hong Kong, in 2015. Architects: Foster + Partners. Photographer: Simon McCartney. Image © illumination Physics Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters, Hong Kong, 1986. Architects: Foster + Partners. Lighting design: Claude and Danielle Engle Lighting. Photographer: Ian Lambot. Image © ERCO, www.erco.com Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters, Hong Kong, in 1986. Architects: Foster + Partners. Lighting design: Claude and Danielle Engle Lighting. Photographer: Ian Lambot. Image © ERCO, www.erco.com Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters, Hong Kong, in 2015. Architects: Foster + Partners. Photographer: Simon McCartney. Image © illumination Physics +12

10 Typologies of Daylighting: From Expressive Dynamic Patterns to Diffuse Light

10:20 - 18 May, 2016
10 Typologies of Daylighting: From Expressive Dynamic Patterns to Diffuse Light, © Philippe Ruault
© Philippe Ruault

Sunlight has proven to be an excellent formgiver, with which architecture can create dynamic environments. The lighting design pioneer William M.C. Lam (1924-2012) emphasized in his book “Sunlighting as Formgiver” that the consideration of daylight is about much more than energy efficiency. Architects have now found numerous ways of implementing sunlight and the questions arises whether a coherent daylight typology could be a valuable target during the design process. However, many daylight analyses focus mainly on energy consumption.

Siobhan Rockcastle and Marilyne Andersen, though, have developed a thrilling qualitative approach at EPFL in Lausanne. Their interest was driven by the spatial and temporal diversity of daylight, introducing a matrix with 10 shades of daylight.

Frozen Architecture: From Glistening Snow Shows to Multi-Colored Ice Festivals

09:30 - 21 January, 2016
Frozen Architecture: From Glistening Snow Shows to Multi-Colored Ice Festivals, Oblong Voidspace - Jene Highstein & Steven Holl. The Snow Show, Lapland, 2003 and 2004. Image Courtesy of Fung Collaboratives, Photo Credit: Kostamoinen
Oblong Voidspace - Jene Highstein & Steven Holl. The Snow Show, Lapland, 2003 and 2004. Image Courtesy of Fung Collaboratives, Photo Credit: Kostamoinen

Winter is the perfect time to build structures with ice, a time and a technique that together offer the possibility of a pure white architecture. With a cloudy sky the condition culminates into an impressive whiteout: white architecture, the landscape and the sky dissolve into a diffuse unity without a visible horizon. If clear skies emerge a subtle contrast of warm and cool white appears with yellowish sunrays against the blue sky. However, the ice itself has striking effects as well: The surface appearance ranges from crystal clear glass to soft opaque impressions. And, for the long nights, illumination achieves an additional magical glow and extends the short daylight time.

Worldwide, snow shows, ice hotels and festivals have attracted numerous visitors with glistening snows and stunning lighting solutions. Futhermore, this frozen water strategy presents a sustainable solution par excellence, where the manufacturing and even disposal causes no harm to the environment. Read on to explore the coolest projects and events featuring architects and artists from Finland to China.

Art Suite 2016. Under the Arctic Skin by Rob Harding & Timsam Harding. Image © Icehotel, Asaf Kliger. www.icehotel.com Icehotel 25 by Anja Kilian, Sebastian Andreas Scheller, Wolfgang-A. Lüchow. Image © Icehotel, Paulina Holmgren. www.icehotel.com Oblong Voidspace - Jene Highstein & Steven Holl. The Snow Show, Lapland, 2003 and 2004. Image Courtesy of Fung Collaboratives, Photo Credit: Menne Stenros Ice Time Tunnel - Tatsuo Miyajima & Tadao Ando. The Snow Show, Lapland, 2003 and 2004. Image Courtesy of Fung Collaboratives, Photo Credit: Jeff DeBany +7

Connected Lighting: From Ethernet to Li-Fi Internet

09:30 - 21 December, 2015
Connected Lighting: From Ethernet to Li-Fi Internet , The Edge, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Architects: PLP Architecture, OeverZaaijer; Interior architects: Fokkema & Partners. Image © Ronald Tilleman, Philips Lighting, The Edge OVG Real Estate
The Edge, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Architects: PLP Architecture, OeverZaaijer; Interior architects: Fokkema & Partners. Image © Ronald Tilleman, Philips Lighting, The Edge OVG Real Estate

How will our buildings change when your mobile device can receive huge amounts of data flowing from the luminaires above you? Not only has LED brought us a highly efficient light source, but a promising instrument for visible light communication (VLC) as well. Therefore light will not only be a medium to support vision, but it will also be an essential means of data communication. With the low energy consumption of LED one can even set up luminaires without mains cables for the power and just install Ethernet cables. Welcome to the world of digital lighting.

How Donald Judd's 100 Shimmering Aluminum Boxes Light Up the Chinati Foundation

09:30 - 24 November, 2015
How Donald Judd's 100 Shimmering Aluminum Boxes Light Up the Chinati Foundation, Donald Judd, 100 untitled works in mill aluminum, 1982-1986. 41 x 51 x 72 inches. Permanent collection, the Chinati Foundation, Marfa, Texas. Photo by Douglas Tuck, Judd Art. Image © Judd Foundation/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY
Donald Judd, 100 untitled works in mill aluminum, 1982-1986. 41 x 51 x 72 inches. Permanent collection, the Chinati Foundation, Marfa, Texas. Photo by Douglas Tuck, Judd Art. Image © Judd Foundation/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY

Completed in 1986, Donald Judd's 100 aluminum boxes offer one of the most exciting locations to study the grace of minimalism. His vision at Marfa in Texas has transformed a piece of military history into a peaceful and unique environment for art and architecture. Here, the shimmering material transcends the formal strictness of plain patterns and the narrow concepts of minimalism. The multiple reflections of light and space create an illusionary atmosphere beyond ascetic ideas.

A Brief History of Rome's Luminous Rotundas

09:30 - 22 October, 2015

With its hundreds of churches, Rome has a developed a rich history of domes. Inspired by this heritage, Jakob Straub has photographed the city's most remarkable rotundas from the ancient Pantheon up to Pier Luigi Nervi's modern sports arena. His neutral photo perspective, taken looking upwards from the center of the rotunda, opens a new view for the underlying concepts where the architecture yearns for the firmament. For Elías Torres, these “zenithal-lit” spaces constitute an important method for daylight architecture, where the exterior is also transformed into a fascinating distant reality.

Torres has analysed numerous strategies for lighting architecture effectively with daylight from above. In his book “Zenithal Light,” illustrated with an abundance of striking photos, he came to the conclusion that “Amongst the representations of the sky in the interior of architecture, the one that depicts the sun shining from above with a circular form has been the favoured one for many cultures.”

What Happens When Light Starts to Create Brand Experiences?

09:30 - 29 September, 2015
What Happens When Light Starts to Create Brand Experiences?, H&M Store in Barcelona / Estudio Mariscal. Image Courtesy of Estudio Mariscal
H&M Store in Barcelona / Estudio Mariscal. Image Courtesy of Estudio Mariscal

Global companies often exploit architectural icons to transform physical form into their desired brand reputations. To help achieve this goal, after twilight, the natural qualities of buildings have often been supplemented by architectural lighting, as the facades call unmistakeably for attention with their colorful and dynamic illumination. Representation has become the leading motivation for upgrading the lighting at headquarters and retail outlets. But when the illumination evolves into spectacular gestures, the brand identity and architecture itself starts to fade. Hence, the struggle for individuality has revived the discussion about ornament – though ornament appears now as light.

Louis Vuitton Matsuya Ginza Facade Renewal / Jun Aoki & Associates. Image © Daici Ano © Diego Opazo Allianz Arena Munich by Herzog & de Meuron, Munich, Germany. Image © Allianz Arena/B. Ducke Yas Viceroy Abu Dhabi by Asymptote, Abu Dhabi. Image © Viceroy Hotel Group +7

Why Good Lighting Design Has Little to Do With Lux or LEDs

09:30 - 26 August, 2015
Why Good Lighting Design Has Little to Do With Lux or LEDs, Target Interactive Breezeway, Rockefeller Center, New York. Lighting design by Electroland, www.electroland.net. Image © Electroland
Target Interactive Breezeway, Rockefeller Center, New York. Lighting design by Electroland, www.electroland.net. Image © Electroland

Is there a designer who does not dream of the perfect lighting concept, which conveys a feeling of well-being and shows the architecture at its best? Unfortunately, however, it is often the case that the brief received from the client causes difficulties. All too often discussions are peppered with such terms as LEDs and lux levels,causing an unconscious shift in thinking in the direction of norms and technology instead of placing questions about requirements and lighting quality at the centre of discussion. But what exactly is quality lighting design?

Light Matters: A Flash Back to the Glittering Age of Las Vegas at the Neon Museum

09:30 - 23 June, 2015
Light Matters: A Flash Back to the Glittering Age of Las Vegas at the Neon Museum, Fremont Street at night in Downtown Las Vegas in 1952. Image © Edward N. Edstrom (Public Domain via Wikimedia)
Fremont Street at night in Downtown Las Vegas in 1952. Image © Edward N. Edstrom (Public Domain via Wikimedia)

Thanks to the increasing availability of giant LED screens, the Golden Age of Neon has quietly faded in Las Vegas. For decades casinos defined their visual identity with colorful neon signs and competed for the most innovative signage. But with casinos closing, being refurbished and the arrival of new lighting technology a lot of neon signs were replaced, and for many years the Young Electric Sign Company kept the old neon signs in their "boneyard" for storage and recycling. Fortunately historic preservation groups rescued these signs. With support of the arts council The Neon Museum was born to save neon treasures and to educate the public.

Read on to explore Las Vegas' luminous landmarks and The Neon Museum.

Neon Museum featuring more than 150 unrestored signs, Las Vegas. Image © Neon Museum, www.neonmuseum.org Front exterior of the Mint Hotel, Las Vegas / Nevada, circa 1957. Image © University of Nevada, Las Vegas University Libraries. Young Electric Sign Company (YESCO) Collection. Colour-changing neon sign on the façade of the Stardust Hotel and Casino, Las Vegas, 1969. Image © University of Nevada, Las Vegas University Libraries. Young Electric Sign Company (YESCO) Collection. La Concha Motel lobby building, designed in 1961, was rescued from demolition and moved to its current location in 2007 to serve as the Neon Museum’s visitors’ center. Architect: Paul Williams. Las Vegas. Image © Neon Museum, www.neonmuseum.org +7

Light Matters: Heightening The Perception Of Daylight With Henry Plummer (Part 2)

10:30 - 7 May, 2015
Light Matters: Heightening The Perception Of Daylight With Henry Plummer (Part 2), Monastery of La Tourette, Éveux-sur-l’Arbresle, France by Le Corbusier. Image © Henry Plummer 2011
Monastery of La Tourette, Éveux-sur-l’Arbresle, France by Le Corbusier. Image © Henry Plummer 2011

Architecture professor and photographer Henry Plummer has heightened the transformative power of daylight with his cameras and published several remarkable books about light and architecture. His deep interest in light, and his lyrical writing perspective, were formed through his contact with the designer and art theorist György Kepes while studying at MIT. Within his numerous photo journeys Plummer has documented the various facets of daylight in Japan and the Nordic Countries, and of masters like Le Corbusier and Louis Kahn. As a Professor Emeritus of Architecture at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Plummer also still has ambitious plans for future book projects. In the second part of this interview, Plummer reveals how changing technologies have affected his photography, and discusses his thoughts on phenomenology and developing a poetic language of light.

If you missed it, you can read part one of this interview here.

Galician Center of Contemporary Art, Santiago de Compostela by Álvaro Siza. Image © Henry Plummer 2002 Guerrero House, Zahora, Spain by Alberto Campo Baeza. Image © Henry Plummer 2005 Männistö Church, Kuopio, Finland by Juha Leiviskä. Image © Henry Plummer 1995 Nanzenji Temple, Kyoto. Image © Henry Plummer 2013 +7

Light Matters: Heightening The Perception Of Daylight With Henry Plummer (Part 1)

10:30 - 3 May, 2015
Light Matters: Heightening The Perception Of Daylight With Henry Plummer (Part 1), Therme Vals, Switzerland by Peter Zumthor. Image © Henry Plummer 2000
Therme Vals, Switzerland by Peter Zumthor. Image © Henry Plummer 2000

Architecture professor and photographer Henry Plummer has heightened the transformative power of daylight with his cameras and published several remarkable books about light and architecture. His deep interest in light, and his lyrical writing perspective, were formed through his contact with the designer and art theorist György Kepes while studying at MIT. Within his numerous photo journeys Plummer has documented the various facets of daylight in Japan and the Nordic Countries, and of masters like Le Corbusier and Louis Kahn. As a Professor Emeritus of Architecture at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Plummer also still has ambitious plans for future book projects. In the first part of this interview, Plummer shares a variety of insights about understanding light and approaching buildings for photography.

San Francisco de Asís, Ranchos de Taos, New Mexico. Image © Henry Plummer 2012 Center Family Dwelling House, Pleasant Hill, Kentucky. Image © Henry Plummer 2006 The Redentore, Venice by Palladio. Image © Henry Plummer 2012 Avila Chapel, Santa Maria in Trastevere, Rome by Antonio Gherardi. Image © Henry Plummer 2012 +7

Light Matters: Learning From Vernacular Windows

09:30 - 9 April, 2015
Light Matters: Learning From Vernacular Windows, Window in Osaka, Japan. Image © VELUX Group
Window in Osaka, Japan. Image © VELUX Group

Before computer daylight simulations were used to optimize the atmosphere and energy in buildings, generations of builders developed simple principles to create the best windows for their site. Two lighting experts have studied these traditional openings in buildings to find inspiration for more sustainable designs today. Francesco Anselmo, a lighting designer at Arup, and John Mardaljevic, Professor of Building Daylight Modelling at the School of Civil & Building Engineering of Loughborough University, have analysed the sun and skylight variations from northern regions like Stockholm down to the equator in cities like Haiti or Abu Dhabi.

Read on to learn more about the variety of traditional windows.

Window in Rome, Italy. Image © VELUX Group Window in Stockholm, Sweden. Image © VELUX Group Window in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Image © VELUX Group Window in London, Great Britain. Image © VELUX Group +7

Light Matters: Le Corbusier and the Trinity of Light

00:00 - 11 February, 2015
Light Matters: Le Corbusier and the Trinity of Light, View looking south to “upwardly springing” waves of light. Church of Saint-Pierre, Firminy, France. Image © Henry Plummer 2011
View looking south to “upwardly springing” waves of light. Church of Saint-Pierre, Firminy, France. Image © Henry Plummer 2011

For his three sacred buildings, Le Corbusier has played masterfully with orientation, openings and textures to create kinetic architecture with daylight. His pilgrimage chapel at Ronchamp, the monastery of Sainte Marie de La Tourette, and the parish church of Saint-Pierre in Firminy reveal distinctive and individual approaches that each render contemplative spaces with light. In his book “Cosmos of Light: The Sacred Architecture of Le Corbusier,” Henry Plummer, Professor Emeritus at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, has analysed these projects with outstanding photographs taken over 40 years and brilliant writing.

Read on for more about how Le Corbusier created his cosmos of light.

Corridor to atrium cadenced with sunshine in late morning. Monastery of Sainte Marie de la Tourette, Éveux-sur-l’Arbresle, France. Image © Henry Plummer 2011 Upward view into scoop at sunrise. Chapel of Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France. Image © Henry Plummer 2011 Golden light on altar wall. Church of Saint-Pierre, Firminy, France. Image © Henry Plummer 2011 Upward view of fissure and brise-soleil, on overcast day. Chapel of Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France. Image © Henry Plummer 2011 +9