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  3. Spotlight: Frank Lloyd Wright

Spotlight: Frank Lloyd Wright

Spotlight: Frank Lloyd Wright
Spotlight: Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater House. Image © Western Pennsylvania Conservancy
Fallingwater House. Image © Western Pennsylvania Conservancy

In 1991, the American Institute of Architects called him, quite simply, “the greatest American architect of all time.” Over his lifetime, Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) completed more than 500 architectural works; many of them are considered masterpieces. Thanks to the wide dissemination of his designs and his many years spent teaching at the school he founded, few architects in history can claim to have inspired more young people into joining the architecture profession.

S.C. Johnson and Son Administration Building. Image © Jeff Dean Unity Temple. Image © Sean Marshall Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/57537089@N00/198494302/'>Flickr user gomattolson</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/'>CC BY-SA 2.0</a> Taliesin West. Image © <a href='https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TaliesinWest2010.JPG'>Wikimedia user AndrewHorne</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en'>CC BY 3.0</a> +25

Image <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frank_Lloyd_Wright_portrait.jpg'>via Wikimedia</a>. Photograph by Al Ravenna in the public domain.
Image via Wikimedia. Photograph by Al Ravenna in the public domain.

Wright is particularly interesting because of the unique period in history which he occupied: as a disciple of Louis Sullivan ("form follows function") in the late 19th century, his work forms something of a bridge between the traditional architecture of that era and the modernists which began to appear in the early 20th century. Some of his later work is formally modernist, yet still retains a sensibility rooted in that earlier period.

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/132084522@N05/17207156426'>Flickr user Sam valadi</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a>
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Image © Flickr user Sam valadi licensed under CC BY 2.0
Taliesin West. Image © <a href='https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TaliesinWest2010.JPG'>Wikimedia user AndrewHorne</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en'>CC BY 3.0</a>
Taliesin West. Image © Wikimedia user AndrewHorne licensed under CC BY 3.0

In many of his works, Wright sought to define a quintessentially American architectural style. This was perhaps expressed most clearly through his houses: in his early career, Wright was often identified with the "Prairie Style," with buildings such as his Robie House featuring horizontal lines and long, low roofs which reflected the landscape of his country. Later, this ideal evolved to become the basis of his Usonian Houses--"Usonian" being a mostly-forgotten moniker coined by writer James Duff Law in 1903 to distinguish people of the USA from the other Americans of Canada and Latin America. In these designs Wright kept the low, horizontal lines of the Prairie Style, but integrated modernist features such as flat roofs and open-plan spaces.

Frederick C. Robie House. Image © Nat Hansen
Frederick C. Robie House. Image © Nat Hansen
Marin Civic Center. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/joevare/3506611084'>Flickr user joevare</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/'>CC BY-ND 2.0</a>
Marin Civic Center. Image © Flickr user joevare licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0

Wright's designs were also driven by the desire to nurture the lives of their occupants. He referred to his architecture as "organic"--in complete harmony with itself and its surroundings, as if it had developed as naturally as a tree--but without necessarily resorting to formal imitation. This approach can be seen in his famous Fallingwater house, where balconies mimic the stratified rock of the waterfall below, and also in his research tower for SC Johnson, where the internal floors are cantilevered off the building's central trunk. His love of nature and the American landscape was also visible in the urban planning vision of Broadacre City, his proposal for sprawling, pastural landscape of incredibly low population density.

Wingspread. Image © Galen Frysinger
Wingspread. Image © Galen Frysinger
Ennis House. Image © <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ennis_House_front_view_2005.jpg'>Wikimedia user Mike Dillon</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en'>CC BY-SA 3.0</a>
Ennis House. Image © Wikimedia user Mike Dillon licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

For many people, Wright is the quintessential vision of the architect: he presented himself as a lone genius, fastidious down to the smallest details of his design, and his personality was often rather brash. But there is no denying his vision--and the timelessness of his designs continues to reveal just how strong that vision was.

SC Johnson Wax Research Tower. Image © SC Johnson
SC Johnson Wax Research Tower. Image © SC Johnson
Fallingwater House. Image © Western Pennsylvania Conservancy
Fallingwater House. Image © Western Pennsylvania Conservancy

See all of Frank Lloyd Wright's classics featured on ArchDaily via the thumbnails below, and more coverage of his work through the links beneath those:

Fallingwater House. Image © Western Pennsylvania Conservancy S.C. Johnson and Son Administration Building. Image © Jeff Dean Unity Temple. Image © Sean Marshall Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/57537089@N00/198494302/'>Flickr user gomattolson</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/'>CC BY-SA 2.0</a> Taliesin West. Image © <a href='https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TaliesinWest2010.JPG'>Wikimedia user AndrewHorne</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en'>CC BY 3.0</a> Fallingwater House. Image © Western Pennsylvania Conservancy Frederick C. Robie House. Image © Nat Hansen Willey House. Image Courtesy of Willey House Website R.W. Lindholm Service Station. Image Courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society Wingspread. Image © Galen Frysinger Wingspread. Image © Galen Frysinger SC Johnson Wax Research Tower. Image © SC Johnson SC Johnson Wax Research Tower. Image © SC Johnson Frederick C. Robie House. Image © Nat Hansen David Wright House. Image © <a href='https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:David_Wright_House.JPG'>Wikimedia user Lockley</a> (public domain) Marin Civic Center. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/joevare/3506611084'>Flickr user joevare</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/'>CC BY-ND 2.0</a> Marin Civic Center. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/peterhess/6241629724'>Flickr user peterhess</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/132084522@N05/17207156426'>Flickr user Sam valadi</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Ennis House. Image © <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ennis_House_front_view_2005.jpg'>Wikimedia user Mike Dillon</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en'>CC BY-SA 3.0</a> Marin Civic Center. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/jesseganes/5830964654'>Flickr user jesseganes</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/'>CC BY-ND 2.0</a> Taliesin West. Image © <a href='https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Taliesen-Drafting-Studio.jpg'>Wikimedia user Steven C. Price</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en'>CC BY-SA 4.0</a> Westcott House. Image © <a href='https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Westcott_House_2005.jpg'>Wikimedia user RRaphael</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en'>CC BY-SA 3.0</a> David Wright House. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/dcrummey/8041966884'>Flickr user dcrummey</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Price Tower. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/49024304@N00/3675419852'>Flickr user anyjazz65</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> +25

Frank Lloyd Wright Explains Why He Was Labeled "Arrogant" in this 1957 Interview

Walk Inside: Google Cultural Institute Puts New York's Guggenheim On The Map

Go on a Virtual Tour of Frank Lloyd Wright's Taliesin East

How Serendipity Helped Make 22-Year-Old Pedro E Guerrero FLW's Favorite Photographer

At Crystal Bridges Museum, Frank Lloyd Wright's Bachman-Wilson House Reframes Architecture as Art

Frank Lloyd Wright and Fay Jones on the Web: The Value of Online Exhibitions

When Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier Had a Public Argument in The New York Times

How 3D Printing is Saving a Frank Lloyd Wright Treasure

Frank Lloyd Wright Archives relocate to New York

Ten Frank Lloyd Wright Buildings Nominated for UNESCO World Heritage List

Frank Lloyd Wright's Textile Houses

Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater: Keepsake or Liability?

See Frank Lloyd Wright's Missing Works Recreated in Photorealistic Renders

9 Times Architects Transformed Frank Lloyd Wright's Guggenheim Museum

Gallery: Frank Lloyd Wright's Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum by Laurian Ghinitoiu

MoMA Announces a Major Retrospective to Commemorate Frank Lloyd Wright's 150th Birthday

See How Frank Lloyd Wright's "Tree of Life" Stained Glass Windows are Assembled

Cite: Rory Stott. "Spotlight: Frank Lloyd Wright" 08 Jun 2017. ArchDaily. Accessed . <http://www.archdaily.com/513642/happy-birthday-frank-lloyd-wright/>
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Fallingwater House. Image © Western Pennsylvania Conservancy

聚焦: 弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特 (Frank Lloyd Wright)