While an overwhelming majority of the world is still fighting against COVID-19, the economic and social situation in China has shown beginning signs of a return to a new normal way of life in recent weeks. In another sign of good news, the Chinese government recently announced that the two hospitals in Wuhan that were built from ground up within 10 days would close on April 15th and the remaining 30 patients will be transferred to other hospitals in Wuhan to receive further treatment. Other regions of China have followed similar steps, also announcing the closure of temporary hospitals, showing a positive sign that the COVID-19 pandemic is finally being defeated where it first began.
We've compiled a list with the temporary hospitals constructed in the first two months of 2020, designed specifically to treat patients with COVID-19 symptoms. In total, China constructed more than 30 temporary hospitals built across the country. The speed at which these medical facilities were built was achieved through the hard work of tens of thousands of people working around the clock.
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Leishenshan Hospital / Central-South Architectural Design Institute
Leishenshan Hospital is located near the Huangjia Lake, Jiangxia District, Wuhan. It was originally planned to add 1,500 beds and accommodate 2,000 medical staff in two separate buildings upon 75,000 square meters. Construction began on January 26, the first isolation ward was completed on February 1, and the hospital accepted the first patients and staff only one week later.
Huoshenshan Hospital / CITIC General Institute of Architectural Design and Research
The construction of Wuhan Caidian Huoshenshan Hospital started on January 23 and was coordinated by four contractor groups- China Construction Third Engineering Bureau, Wuhan Construction Engineering, Wuhan Municipal Construction Group, and Hanyang Municipal Construction Group. The hospital was quickly built because of its modular structure which provided a housing-like form for each unit. With a site area of 34,000 square meters, this hospital can accommodate up to 1,000 patients. Huoshenshan Hospital was put into operation on February 2 and patients were officially admitted the following day
Temporary Hospitals / Hanyang Municipal Design Institute
On February 3, Wuhan began constructing three temporary hospitals in Wuhan Hongshan Stadium, Wuhan Salon, and Wuhan International Convention and Exhibition Center. The following day, the city received positive news, that the surrounding areas would build eight additional temporary hospitals to treat COVID-19 patients. In total, these 11 temporary hospitals were used to treat patients who were battling pneumonia as a result of getting infected by Coronavirus in different areas of Wuhan.
The People's Liberation Army's mobile medical system consists of multiple temporary hospitals that are widely used in various emergency treatments and times of national crisis. The temporary hospital is generally composed of medical functional units, ward units, and technical support units. These wards are modular sanitary units that house many functions including emergency treatment, surgical treatment, and clinical testing. According to the government's standard, a temporary hospital will be divided into separate zones, each containing 50 beds, with one nurse station for every 250 beds. The doctor-patient workflow is completely independent, and the sewage from the site is treated separately.
Nanjing Public Health Medical Center Contingency Project / Southeast University Architectural Design and Research Institute
This temporary hospital contains two rows of mobile dwellings with a total of 288 contingency isolated wards and one healthcare worker building. The project also includes infrastructure such as roads, water supply, and drainage, street lighting, and public infrastructure, which help to receive and treat COVID-19 patients. The project design process only took 24 hours for the schematic design and three days for the construction drawings. The medical center has been completed within 14 days, a true representation of the efficiency that the city of Nanjing is known for.
Xi’an Public Health Medical Center Project / China Northwest Architecture Design and Research Institute Co. LTD
The Xi’an Public Health Medical Center's nine wards and one ICU department began accepting patients on February 3rd. Each treatment area is divided into wards, with a variety of medical departments providing efficient staffing for different departments including practitioners, nurses, examination, radiology, pharmacy, laboratory, etc. The three buildings of this medical center were designed and constructed within 20 days.
Zhengzhou Qiboshan Hospital / China Construction Seventh Engineering Division. CORP. LTD
As the designated hospital for treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia in Zhengzhou, the Zhengzhou version of “Xiao Tang Shan” was built in 10 days- a startling 5 days ahead of schedule. The total gross floor area is 26,210 square meters, including the renovation of an over 7,000-square-meter existing outpatient building, and the construction of a 1,165 square-meter new inpatient ward that holds 800 beds.
Weihai Chest Hospital Expansion Project
After 15 days of construction, Weihai Chest Hospital was completed and put into use on February 12th, covering a total area of about 43,500 square meters (10.7 acres). The expansion project plans to accommodate 300 patients and is equipped with inspection and quarantine units, a treatment ward, a co-working area, a general ward, a rest area for medical staff, and a catering facility.
The newly-built infected hospital area
The newly-built infected hospital area in the city of Fuqing sits adjacent to the main hospital area of the City Hospital of Fuqing. The entire area, split into two phases, is around 8,100 square meters and contains 200 beds for patients. Among them, the first phase of the project covers an area of 3,000 square meters, including a 1,300-square-meter outpatient building and a 1,700-square-meter isolation area, which provides an additional 45 beds. The second phase of the project is under rapid construction, which, upon completion, could provide an additional 155 beds and become the largest-scale infectious disease ward in the area.
The Third People’s Hospital of Shenzhen Temporary Stay-in Observation Ward
As the Third People’s Hospital of Shenzhen second stage project is under intensive construction, the first temporary stay-in observation ward, especially for the treatment of patients infected with COVID-19 in Shenzhen, will soon be completed. Constructed with the idea to plan ahead before the crisis overwhelmed the healthcare system, the ward started construction on January 25th, and the first 30 beds had been put into use on February 7th. When the second stage construction of the hospital is finished, an additional 1,000 beds will be available. The overall capacity of the Third People’s Hospital of Shenzhen will be 2,600 beds, more than the total number of beds provided by Wuhan Leishenshan and Huoshenshan Hospital combined. Today, the total number of confirmed cases in Shenzhen reported are 419 cases, but The Third People’s Hospital of Shenzhen is well prepared for all patients, in the case of a virus resurgence.
We invite you to check out ArchDaily's coverage related to COVID-19, read our tips and articles on Productivity When Working from Home and learn about technical recommendations for Healthy Design in your future projects. Also, remember to review the latest advice and information on COVID-19 from the World Health Organization (WHO) website.