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Siming Wu

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How Are Public Washrooms Shaping Places in China?

Public Toilets in Zuzhai Village / cnS. Image © Siming Wu
Public Toilets in Zuzhai Village / cnS. Image © Siming Wu

In recent years, with the accelerated urban development of public spaces in China, public washrooms have been assigned numerous new roles. Designers have come up with a variety of proposals which suggest turning public washrooms into a place where social gathering can be redefined, and temporary stay can be more engaging. Although the scale of public washrooms is significantly smaller than that of any other type of architecture, Chinese architects have been working innovatively on fitting the public washrooms into the changing social contexts. Below are a few examples that demonstrate some current architectural experiments with public washroom design in China.

Public Toilets in Zuzhai Village / cnS. Image © Siming WuNantou Public Toilet / Edge Studio. Image © Zhuoheng FuPP Garden / People’s Architecture Office. Image Courtesy of People’s Architecture OfficeToilets with a View / guó bàn ér. Image © Shu He+ 35

Renovation of Shunde Diesel Engine Plant Phase II / Atelier cnS

© Siming Wu© Siming Wureserve the shape of pavilion. Image © Siming Wuexterior stairs. Image © Siming Wu+ 35

Foshan, China
  • Architects: Atelier cnS
  • Area Area of this architecture project Area:  15000
  • Year Completion year of this architecture project Year:  2020

Shenzhen Mingde Academy / O-office Architects

Teachers' housing. Image © Chao ZhangViewing tower next to No.3 student dormioty. Image © Chao ZhangLibrary facade. Image © Siming WuScience building transformed from the former dye warehouse. Image © Siming Wu+ 46

  • Area Area of this architecture project Area:  25000
  • Year Completion year of this architecture project Year:  2019

Embodied Energy in Building Materials: What it is and How to Calculate It

All human activities affect the environment. Some are less impactful, some much, much more. According to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), the construction sector is responsible for up to 30% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Activities such as mining, processing, transportation, industrial operations, and the combination of chemical products result in the release of gases such as CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, halocarbons, and water vapor. When these gases are released into the atmosphere, they absorb a portion of the sun's rays and redistribute them in the form of radiation in the atmosphere, warming our planet. With a rampant amount of gas released daily, this layer thickens, which causes solar radiation to enter and and stay in the planet. Today, this 'layer' has become so thick that mankind is beginning to experience severe consequence, such as desertification, ice melting, water scarcity, and the intensification of storms, hurricanes, and floods, which has modified ecosystems and reduced biodiversity.

As architects, one of our biggest concerns should be the reduction of carbon emissions from the buildings we construct. Being able to measure, quantify, and rate this quality is a good way to start.

Public Toilets in Zuzhai Village / cnS

Historical change, new and old replacement. Image © Siming Wu© Siming WuThe semi-circle contains landscape nodes to make indoors and outdoors more transparent. Image © Siming WuLandscape sketch made of ammonia. Image © Siming Wu+ 31

  • Architects: cnS
  • Area Area of this architecture project Area:  121
  • Year Completion year of this architecture project Year:  2019

Hongling Experimental Primary School / O-office Architects

The school building in a background of urban nature. Image © Chao ZhangThe Valley courtyard open to the city. Image © Chao ZhangThe open-air theater in the north courtyard. Image © Chao ZhangVisual interaction in the outdoor spaces between floors. Image © Siming Wu+ 45

Shenzhen, China
  • Area Area of this architecture project Area:  33721
  • Year Completion year of this architecture project Year:  2019

Quanzhou Vanke “Tang” Town / cnS

© Siming Wu© Siming Wu© Siming Wu© Siming Wu+ 36

Quanzhou, China
  • Architects: cnS
  • Area Area of this architecture project Area:  29500
  • Year Completion year of this architecture project Year:  2019

B.I.G Haizhu Bay Creative Zone / Atelier cn°S

© Siming Wu© Siming Wu© Siming Wu© Siming Wu+ 32

  • Architects: Atelier cn°S
  • Area Area of this architecture project Area:  32000
  • Year Completion year of this architecture project Year:  2018

White House / Atelier cnS

bird view. Image © Siming Wuharmony with the old buildings. Image © Siming Wublue sky and cloud. Image © Lei Shenwhite house on the top of the roof. Image © Siming Wu+ 43

Dongguan, China
  • Architects: Atelier cnS
  • Area Area of this architecture project Area:  6000
  • Year Completion year of this architecture project Year:  2017