Architecture, to materialize as a constructed and functional building, requires the collaboration of a series of disciplines. During the design stages, these complementary areas are added to the architectural design, attaching systems that help in the construction's functionality, known as complementary projects.
In general, building and house projects start with preliminary architectural studies, taking note of their context and customer demands. With the established program, the development of the project starts, making it necessary to include other technical areas that complement the architectural project. The complementary disciplines determine guidelines that influence the design and operation of spaces, directly impacting the architectural design, which, on the other hand, has the mission of making all systems compatible, ensuring the total functionality of the construction, technically and spatially, keeping in mind the concept initially pre-established with the customer.
Complementary projects include the disciplines of structures, foundation, electrical and networks, hydraulics, as well as fire protection and prevention projects, protection against atmospheric discharges, accessibility, lighting, pressurization, air conditioning, drainage, landscaping, interiors, among others. Each of these projects is a layer that adds to the architecture from the scale and size of the project, as well as from its program. There are some complementary ones that are fundamental in any project scale, from a residence to a hospital complex, as in structures, hydraulics, foundations and electrical projects' case. These disciplines, together with architecture, make up the basic set of projects for a building.
As the scale of projects increases, like the case of tall buildings or more complex structures such as schools and hospitals, specific needs such as accessibility, fire protection and others arise. In addition, the complementary project types also vary by geographic location. In colder climates, for example, it is necessary to plan for climatization projects involving heating and cooling, as it is not possible to guarantee good levels of environmental comfort with passive strategies only, while in warmer climates there is the possibility of mixing between passive cross ventilation and the climatization project. There is also the option of complementary projects aimed at building sustainability, such as solar heating, for example.
Complementary projects, therefore, are disciplines that make up the systems that will exist within a project, and need to be developed by specialized and qualified professionals for that. At the same time, the architectural project is responsible for the sum of all these layers, paying attention to the specificities of each discipline and seeking to resolve constructive conflicts between them. In such way, one has in architecture the discipline that adds its complements to the project's program, to the concept and to the demands of customers, resulting in the project ready for execution.