A relative newcomer to the material world, smart glass (also known as switch glass or electrochromic glass) has the ability to change its properties and appearance, allowing the environmental conditions of a space to be optimized according to the use and needs of its users.
Electrochromic glass technology works by changing the electrical polarization between some of its components. Its most widely used variant, known as PDCL, consists of a thin film of liquid crystal that sits between two conductive transparent plastic layers (usually laminated glass). By changing the current running through the liquid crystal, the glass can take on different appearences.
When de-energized, liquid crystals are in a disordered, misaligned state that fractures incoming light, delivering an opaque white tone. When energized with a voltage between 24 and 100 volts, the crystals are arranged to allow light to pass through relatively unimpeded, delivering a transparency of between 55% and 85%.
This innovation is currently available in a large number of colors, and the stability to the ultra violet rays, which was one of the problems of the first generation of these glasses, is practically solved.