the world's most visited architecture website
i

Sign up now and start saving and organizing your favorite architecture projects and photos

Sign up now to save and organize your favorite architecture projects

i

Find the most inspiring products for your projects in our Product Catalog.

Find the most inspiring products in our Product Catalog.

i

Get the ArchDaily Chrome Extension and be inspired with every new tab. Install here »

i

All over the world, architects are finding cool ways to re-use run-down old buildings. Click here to see the best in Refurbishment Architecture.

Want to see the coolest refurbishment projects? Click here.

i

Immerse yourself in inspiring buildings with our selection of 360 videos. Click here.

See our immersive, inspiring 360 videos. Click here.

All
Projects
Products
Events
Competitions
Navigate articles using your keyboard
  1. ArchDaily
  2. Projects
  3. Skyscrapers
  4. United States
  5. SOM
  6. 1973
  7. AD Classics: Willis Tower (Sears Tower) / SOM

AD Classics: Willis Tower (Sears Tower) / SOM

AD Classics: Willis Tower (Sears Tower) / SOM
AD Classics: Willis Tower (Sears Tower) / SOM

Courtesy of SOM Courtesy of SOM AD Classics: Willis Tower (Sears Tower) / SOM AD Classics: Willis Tower (Sears Tower) / SOM + 20

  • Architects

    SOM
  • Location

    233 S Wacker Dr, Chicago, IL 60606, USA
  • Architect

    Bruce Graham from Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill
  • Structural Engineer

    Fazlur R. Khan from Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill
  • References

    SOM, searstower.org, TIME.com
  • Project Year

    1973

Text description provided by the architects. Towering over the windy city of Chicago, the Willis Tower (formerly known as Sears Tower) was once the tallest building in the world upon its completion in 1973. Sears, Roebuck, & Company commissioned Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill to design an office building that would house their headquarters and the many offices they had scattered around Chicago in one building. The design also had to incorporate extra office space for the anticipated future growth of the company.

The building is 108 stories tall, rising 1,450 feet above the city. The height of the building is due to spacial needs. The company analyzed their current spacial needs, as well as the space needed for growth up to the year 2003 being as meticulous as determining the number of desks for personnel.

SOM proposed a superstructure of nine interlocking tubes of varying heights, divided in 75' x 75' squares that are separate buildings joined together as one. 

Courtesy of SOM
Courtesy of SOM

The different heights allow for the building to step back, meeting setback regulations and creating the iconic staggering effect that the building is known for. The "bundled-tube" configuration was innovated by engineer Fazlur R. Khan from SOM, and these nine tubes formed the skyscraper's basic structure. This system allowed for large open office spaces on the lower levels (where the Sears offices would be located) and smaller floors as the building soared in height with unobstructed views of the city. 

The structure system also saved ten million dollars in steel costs. Aluminum cladding was used for the structure, and the entire rest of the building was clad in bronze-tinted vision glass panels which allowed the skyscraper to receive ample natural lighting and views from every exterior wall. Completing the tower at the peak of its height are antennas that allow for local radio and television broadcasts.

Courtesy of SOM
Courtesy of SOM

The 103rd floor of the tower is the location of the famous skydeck Chicago, which is visited by 1.3 million tourists a year. In just 60 seconds tourists can soar to the skydeck to experience the swaying of the skyscraper on a windy day and as of 2009, look at the city beneath their feet from glass boxes that protrude from the deck.

The growth of Sears, Roebuck, & Company did not occur as expected through the years, and in 2009 insurance broker Willis Group Holdings, Ltd. leased three floors of the tower and retained the naming rights. The name of the skyscraper then changed to Willis Tower and is valid for fifteen years.

Courtesy of SOM
Courtesy of SOM

Today the Willis Tower still remains the tallest building in the United States and the fifth tallest free-standing structure in the world. Although Sears, Roebuck, & Co. did not have much success for their company inside the walls of the tower, there is no doubt that their vision and SOM's creation is still a marvel on the Chicago skyline.

Courtesy of SOM
Courtesy of SOM

"Sears Tower was the last supertall building constructed during the Internation architecture period, and SOM's interpretation of the style is remarkably bold and awe-inspiring."

Courtesy of SOM
Courtesy of SOM

View the complete gallery

Location to be used only as a reference. It could indicate city/country but not exact address.
About this office
SOM
Office
Cite: Adelyn Perez. "AD Classics: Willis Tower (Sears Tower) / SOM" 01 Jun 2010. ArchDaily. Accessed . <https://www.archdaily.com/62410/ad-classics-willis-tower-sears-tower-skidmore-owings-merrill/> ISSN 0719-8884
Read comments
Read comments

AD 经典:威利斯塔 (西尔斯塔)/ Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill