Text description provided by the architects. This typical 3-storey plus roof terrace inter-terrace residential unit aims to demonstrate a New Sustainable Residential Typology for Landed Houses acclimatised to the Tropical Climate of Singapore. The architecture is driven by the principles of passive design and energy efficient systems are then supplemented to achieve ideal indoor environmental qualities (thermal and light qualities) if required.
SUMMARY OF KEY SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIES
Passive Design for Thermal Comfort and Daylighting Given the site orientation of this terrace is fixed at NW-SE frontage orientation, self shading using upper floor, balcony, shading devices, and landscaping are used to mitigate interior heat gain. Innovative external thermal plaster and high solar reflectance index external finishes is also used to further insulate against heat gain on critical envelops. Building planning and fenestration design is designed to encourage natural ventilation and cross ventilation. A central stairwell has enhanced stack effect of a traditional airwell due to the heated Photovoltaic skylight roof, allowing more draft within the house. To harness the airflow, internal walls are predominantly full height sliding panels. Natural ventilation is also planned for in the scenario of monsoon seasons, tackling water penetration. Bedroom doors are detailed with sliding ventilation panels for cross-ventilation. Daylighting is uniformly distributed throughout the elongated terrace typology with central skylighting.
Renewable Resources and Energy Efficiency To push the limits of a self-sustaining residence, allocated photovoltaic panels generate the Hybrid DC air-conditioner. Solar thermal collectors are also installed to power a DC hot water heater for a zero to low energy system. Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) panels clad entire roof. An innovative BIPV and ceiling composite design integrates ventilation slots, water, heat and noise insulation so that the BIPV ceiling composite roof replaces the need for the conventional roof. PV external landscape lighting is also installed. And to achieve a zero to low energy residence, all artificial lights are energy efficient LEDs. To further promote a green lifestyle, a solar charging unit integrated with the external metering compartment has been fitted for charging of electronics and solar bicycle.
Environmental Quality through Landscaping Within the constraint of small outdoor areas, trees and vertical climbers are planted at strategic location for shading of building envelop. In addition, a vertical green wall clad the back boundary wall facing the patio. This also helps to increase the Green Plot Ratio at the same time. This increase in greenery to the residence provides a perceived lower in ambient temperature for indoor comfort and occupant enjoyment. To reduce requirements on potable water, the roof has been designed such that rainwater fallen on site is also naturally channeled to landscape planter areas as irrigation.
Sustainable Construction and Buildability To optimise buildability and speed of construction, the superstructure is a steel framework construction with lightweight metal composite floor. And to reduce the requirement of resources for building materials reclaimed timber is used for all timber flooring areas, and felled trees have been recycled as furniture such as tables and vanity tops. Construction recycled materials are extensively used for substructure (‘Eco-concrete’ with Recycled Concrete Aggregate and cement-replacement-milled waste) and eco finishes (primarily SGLS accredited) have been used extensively to ensure environmental protection and good indoor air quality. All glazing panels are also designed in similar modular standard sizes to minimise wastage of material.
Construction Process and Capability Enhancements As part of Integrated Design Process for productivity, the design was generated using BIM software (Revit) which also assists the integrated usage of advanced computer aided simulation for solar, natural ventilation studies (CFD), daylight quality assessment, and PV optimisation design.