Saving Suburbia Part I: Bursting the Bubble

© Flickr User CC tango_28

Poverty and violence, boarded windows and weedy lawns, immigrants jammed “by the dozen into houses conceived for the Cleavers.” In “Can this Suburb be Saved?,” New York Magazine critic, Justin Davidson, begins by painting a bleak but realistic picture of suburbia today. It’s these conditions that are making thousands flee to cities everyday, making headlines predict the “death of sprawl.” [1]

Davidson makes the case, and I agree, that the suburbs and architects need each other – now, more than ever. But Davidson ends with a defeatist conclusion. He seems to say, it’s just too difficult, that, ultimately: “suburbanites like the suburbs.” There are suburbanites like these, who believe nothing’s wrong, who shudder at the word “density.” But who are they? The ones jammed “by the dozens” into single-family homes? The ones scraping to make ends meet?

Herein lies the great complication of suburbia. Its myth – of wealth, whiteness, a steady-job in the big city, and a space to call your own – keeps getting in the way of the big-picture: the thousands in need of change. If architects are to “save” the suburbs, and redesign them based on their multiple realities, they’ll have to start by separating themselves from the myth. By bursting the ‘burbs’s bubble.

Read about the Myths and Truths of Suburbia, after the break…

© Brookings Institute via CNN Money

Myth:“Poverty doesn’t exist here.”

Thanks to the Recession, this myth has become too obvious, too uncomfortable, to ignore. For the first time, suburbs have a higher percentage of the nation’s poor than cities. Many are newly-impoverished: home-owners who lost their nest-eggs, who are chained to mortgages they can’t afford.

However, those most affected by the Recession are the nearly 10 million people in suburbia who were living below the poverty line before 2000, including many new immigrants who flocked to the suburbs for the availability of low-wage construction/service jobs. With the housing market folding and those jobs dwindling, suburban poverty, in ten years, has increased by 53%. [2]

But, these are just facts and figures. It’s hard to imagine what it really means to be poor in Suburbia, especially when the ‘burbs persist in seeming so darn idyllic.

So let’s think about that idyllic suburban lay-out for a second: consider how it was designed, and for who (Commuters and Soccer Moms, ostensibly), and how it has grown along long, linear corridors. The suburbs are almost perfectly designed to make the lives of the “disencarchised” poor as miserable as possible.

An Unwalkable Street in Suburbia. Source SwitchBoard via The Atlantic Cities

Myth: “Everybody Drives!” 

Imagine, if you will, that for the financial burden, the price of gas, the difficulty in attaining a license, you don’t have a car. What are your options?

In suburbia, public transportation is rare or nonexistant. Take Buffalo for example. Although 61% of Erie County’s population lives beyond the 42 square miles of the city-center, rapid transit exists only within city limits.” As one Blogger bemoaned: “ means stranding.” [3]

What about walking, or bicycling? But then again, no. Beyond the extreme distances characteristic of suburbia (its poor “destination accessibility”), consider the hazard of just crossing the street: cars on multiple lanes that whip past your face, nonexistent intersections or sidewalks. As an article in The Atlantic Cities put it: “We have engineered walking and bicycling out of our communities,” making them “the most dangerous and least attractive option.”

We’ve propagated these pedestrian-hostile environments based on the assumption that the car would forever be King. But the reign is numbered.

© Flickr User CC mugley

Truth: The Car Is No Longer King

A recent report from the U.S. PIRG Education Fund found that Americans, particularly young Americans, are driving less. Much less. Between 2001 to 2009, the average annual number of vehicle miles traveled by people aged 16 to 34 went from 10,300 miles per capita to 7,900 miles per capita. [4]

This 23% decrease can’t be explained by economics alone; the trend was also seen among the young employed and financially stable as well.

What has changed, then, is our culture. In Davidson’s words, what was once “a passport to independence [is now] a toxic jail cell.” And as Americans, particularly young Americans, are avoiding cars, it should come as no surprise that they’re avoiding the car-centric suburbs too.

In his book, The Great Reset, Richard Florida calls it the New Normal, “Whether it’s because they don’t want them, can’t afford them, or see them as a symbol of waste and environmental abuse, more and more people are ditching their cars and taking public transit or moving to more walkable neighborhoods.” Leading the pack of this great migration to inner-cities and mixed-used suburbs? The Baby Boomers, post-retirement and down-sizing, and Generation Y. [4]

A reinvention of Keizer, Oregon, by WorkAc. © James Ewing via The New Yorker

Truth: A Need For Space

As the young and the old abandon the suburbs for denser neighborhoods, there of course remain two camps: the poor who do not have the option to leave, and the families who, as Davidson pointed out, like the suburbs.

Here is where the myth and the reality collide. For those wealthy enough not to feel its hostility, who have the time/money to chauffeur their kids around, the suburbs are exactly the kind of place you would want your children to grow up in: safe cul-de-sacs, backyards for running around, parks to spend a Sunday in.

It wouldn’t work to force an urban high-density model upon the suburbs; its appeal depends upon its characteristic greenery and open space. But must those qualities be sacrificed? If so, to what extent? In Part II of this series, I will suggest how to confront the challenges facing systemic change in Suburbia (laws, bureaucracy, lack of resources, the myth, race/class tensions, etc.).

But for now, I leave you with this thought. The myth of Suburbia, upon which its design has been predicated, is hostile to those living its reality. Instead of catering to the desires of the ideal, we must enlist them in re-thinking suburbia for its forgotten citizens, its poor and “disencarchised,” its young and old.

The suburbs are ripe to be re-imagined. Are we up to the challenge?

 

You just read about the problem, are you up for the solution? Check out Part II of the series: “Getting the Soccer Moms on Your Side?

 

References

[1] Davidson, Justin. “Can this Suburb Be Saved?” New York Magazine. February 12, 2012. <http://nymag.com/arts/architecture/reviews/foreclosed-suburb-davidson-2012-2/>

[2] Luhby, Tami. “Poverty Pervades the Suburbs.” CNN Money. September 23, 2011. <http://money.cnn.com/2011/09/23/news/economy/poverty_suburbs/index.htm?iid=HP_LN>

[3] Bruce. “Public Transportation and the Suburbs.” ArtVoice. May 19, 2008. <http://blogs.artvoice.com/avdaily/2008/05/19/public-transportation-and-the-suburbs/>

[4] Baxandall, Phineas, Bejamin Davis, and Tony Dutzik. “Transportation and the New Generation: Why Young People Are Driving Less and What It Means for Transportation Policy.” The Frontier Group and The U.S. PIRG Education Fund. April 2012. <http://www.uspirg.org/sites/pirg/files/reports/Transportation%20%26%20the%20New%20Generation%20vUS_0.pdf>

 

Cite: Quirk, Vanessa. "Saving Suburbia Part I: Bursting the Bubble" 26 Apr 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 24 Apr 2014. <http://www.archdaily.com/?p=229385>

8 comments

  1. Thumb up Thumb down 0

    davidson is probably correct – most (but obviously not all) of suburbanites like the suburbs. It is hard to believe that subdivisions would continue to proliferate by the billions of dollars each year without the desire the inhabitants. Whether what “they” seek is a myth or is in fact a reality is probably not accessable to the sweeping hand of the architecture or urban planning profession, since suburbanites are individuals making thousands of individual decisions every day based on the common agreement of their community and their own well-being. Let us all start by getting our own house in order before implementing massive formal changes which originate in large institutions and bureaucracies.

  2. Thumb up Thumb down -1

    I hate these anti-suburb articles written by people who obviously do not have children. Note that the photo showing an unsafe environment for pedestrians is in fact an urban environment, with high rise buildings surrounding it. cities offer no place for children to play safely, such as a back yard, and are dirty and busy compared to suburbs. Image taking 3 children under the age of 4 to the grocery store without a car, especially in climates with rain or snow in the winter. Before trying to reinvent the suburds, the author should research the needs of a families who have small children, and truly understand them.

    • Thumb up Thumb down +2

      You’ve obviously never lived in a city.

      Millions – literally millions – of people do exactly what you’re talking about every day in cities. They take their kids to parks, museums, grocery stores, school, and the dentist without a problem, and without a car.

      You know why? because dense neighborhoods can have all of those functions, often within walking distance. There would be weeks where I would go without even having to get on public transportation, and I could eat, sleep, and have recreation time without leaving a 5 mile square radius of my house when I lived in the city.

  3. Thumb up Thumb down +2

    The key word here being immigrants, as in illegal. Look at the states affected and tell me I`m wrong. No racism, just realism.

    • Thumb up Thumb down 0

      yes, you are right. But it won’t stop with the immigrants – it just starts with them ’cause they are at the bottom of the chain. The move back to the cities will continue, the suburbs have done their bit in keeping the public tame and obedient – it’s time to move on. This massive dislocation of middle class people is a big game, a trillions of dollars industry. It’s almost like war with all the profits and destruction left behind, only without the human loss. Now, when too many young people are fed up with the suburbia (no wonder Arcade Fire’s album is so popular) , the urban society needs to be redesigned again. Oh, and the ‘american dream’ – it will be redesigned too.

  4. Thumb up Thumb down 0

    Housing the poor in this country has never been fully considered. The high-rise housing projects were politically neutered before they ever had a chance to work. And now those same families, who were once in the penitentiary-style housing projects have been displaced to the suburbs, and effectively pushed to the fringes of our society.

    Only, now, instead of living in dense cities, they have been pushed to physically to the outskirts, only to be preyed upon by unscrupulous bankers practicing mortgage fraud.

    This is the reversal of white-flight in action. Middle class families (or, the few families left in our extinguishing middle class) are moving back to the city and leaving the suburbs to the politically/economically disenfranchised.

    It’s a slow-motion game of musical chairs, with the poor always left standing when the music stops.

  5. Thumb up Thumb down +2

    Fix the city school systems and you reduce the desire to move to the burbs. I would like to see a stat of how many people unwillingly move to the burbs because of the school systems. Count me as one them.

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