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Light Matters

How Luis Barragán Used Light to Make Us See Color

09:30 - 12 July, 2018
How Luis Barragán Used Light to Make Us See Color, © 2018 Barragan Foundation, Switzerland/SOMAAP; Fred Sandback Archive
© 2018 Barragan Foundation, Switzerland/SOMAAP; Fred Sandback Archive

In Luis Barragán’s poetic imagination color plays as significant a role as dimension or space. Rough textures and water reflections heighten the impact of bright sunlight in his colorful buildings. But where does such vibrancy come from and how is it heightened by the architecture itself?

© 2018 Barragan Foundation, Switzerland/SOMAAP; Fred Sandback Archive © 2018 Barragan Foundation, Switzerland/SOMAAP; Fred Sandback Archive © 2018 Barragan Foundation, Switzerland/SOMAAP; Fred Sandback Archive © 2018 Barragan Foundation, Switzerland/SOMAAP; Fred Sandback Archive + 6

How Satellite Images of the Earth at Night Help Us Understand Our World and Make Better Cities

09:30 - 17 April, 2018
How Satellite Images of the Earth at Night Help Us Understand Our World and Make Better Cities, Nighttime view of Western Europe: England (top right), Paris (bright city near the middle of the image) and Belgium and the Netherlands (middle-right of frame). Image courtesy of the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center
Nighttime view of Western Europe: England (top right), Paris (bright city near the middle of the image) and Belgium and the Netherlands (middle-right of frame). Image courtesy of the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center

Satellite images of Earth at night make for fascinating, beautiful pictures. But they also confront us with a growing form of pollution. Why do we waste so much energy to light outer space when we only need light on the ground? High-resolution satellite data can now deliver detailed insights into how humans have shaped the night, and these earth observation systems are about to reform our urban planning. They can become an integral part of project development and control, as many strange ecological, political and social phenomena become apparent with a closer look at the night-time imagery of our planet.

How to Celebrate New Architecture: Shaping Identity with Spectacular Opening Ceremonies

09:30 - 15 March, 2018
How to Celebrate New Architecture: Shaping Identity with Spectacular Opening Ceremonies, “Vives réflexions, museum reflections,” multimedia and pyrotechnic show for the grand opening of Louvre Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi 2017. Artistic direction: Christophe Berthonneau, Groupe F. Image © N. Chavance, Groupe F
“Vives réflexions, museum reflections,” multimedia and pyrotechnic show for the grand opening of Louvre Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi 2017. Artistic direction: Christophe Berthonneau, Groupe F. Image © N. Chavance, Groupe F

After finishing a building, the client is faced with an important question: How do they celebrate the new architecture? This moment offers an essential opportunity to inform the public about the existence and mission of the building. Therefore, the designs of opening ceremonies are often loaded with symbolic imagery to construct a new identity. Fireworks and light shows are an especially common part of the powerful repertoire used to magnify the aura of architecture. This luminous storytelling can underline the client’s uniqueness and superiority on both a local level and an international stage. I spoke with two leading designers to get their insights on how opening ceremonies have changed in recent years: Christophe Berthonneau, Creative Director at Groupe F, who introduced the Louvre Abu Dhabi, and Fred Thompson, Creative Director at Laservision Mega Media, who worked on the opening of the Marina Bay Sands in Singapore.

Grand opening at Lotte World Tower, Seoul / South Korea, 2017. Design: Groupe F. Image © N. Chavance, Groupe F Inauguration of Rion-Antirion Bridge, Patras / Greece, 2004. Design: Groupe F. Image © T. Nava, Groupe F Grand opening of Elbphilharmonie, Hamburg / Germany, 2017. Architecture: Herzog & de Meuron. Concept: Jung von Matt and gestalt communications. Image © Ralph Larmann Grand opening of Marina Bay Sands, Singapore, 2011. Design: Laservision Mega Media. Image © Laservision Mega Media + 32

The Evolution of Light in IM Pei’s Museums, from Dark Concrete Voids to Luminous Glass Pyramids

09:30 - 11 October, 2017
The Evolution of Light in IM Pei’s Museums, from Dark Concrete Voids to Luminous Glass Pyramids, Illuminated glass pyramid at Grand Louvre during twilight, Paris / France. Architecture: I. M. Pei & Partners, New York. Lighting design: Claude and Danielle Engle, Washington. Photography: Thomas Mayer. Image © ERCO GmbH, www.erco.com
Illuminated glass pyramid at Grand Louvre during twilight, Paris / France. Architecture: I. M. Pei & Partners, New York. Lighting design: Claude and Danielle Engle, Washington. Photography: Thomas Mayer. Image © ERCO GmbH, www.erco.com

Although the Louvre pyramid, often recognized as his masterwork, created a luminous icon for presenting culture, IM Pei’s early museums were characterized by the harsh shadows of brutalism. Project by project, the Chinese-American master developed a sophisticated, open architectural language. Pei’s holistic approach for welcoming museum visitors comprises powerful symbols which utilize sunlight to its fullest during the daytime, while employing the magical glow of illumination in the evening.

Whereas most assessments of the Louvre have praised the achievements of the luminous pyramid as seen above the ground, the actual design challenge laid underground, in offering visitors a successful underground space. Later, Pei transferred his language to multiple other museum projects, where light was always a key factor in defining museum experiences. In a year of celebratory events such as “Rethinking Pei: A Centenary Symposium,” which begins tomorrow at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, an examination of Pei’s use of light in museums can contribute an important cultural emphasis.

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, Cleveland / USA. Architecture: Pei Cobb Freed & Partners Architects. Image © Timothy Hursley Night view of Suzhou Museum, Suzhou / China. Architecture: Pei Partnership Architects. Photography: Kerin Ip. Image © Pei Partnership Architects Atrium at Deutsches Historisches Museum (German Historical Museum), Berlin / Germany. Architecture: Pei Associates, New York. Photography: Rudi Meisel. Image © ERCO GmbH, www.erco.com Tetrahedral glass tent at Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, Cleveland / USA. Architecture: Pei Cobb Freed & Partners Architects. Image © Panoramio user Bohao Zhao <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rock_%5E_Roll_Hall_of_Frame_-_panoramio.jpg'>via Wikimedia</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en'>CC BY 3.0</a> + 29

How New Technologies Are Turning Awkward Elevator Rides into a Thing of the Past

09:30 - 4 August, 2017
How New Technologies Are Turning Awkward Elevator Rides into a Thing of the Past, Lift with dynamic light show at the A'DAM Tower, Amsterdam. Designed by InventDesign, photography by Dennis Bouman. Image © InventDesign
Lift with dynamic light show at the A'DAM Tower, Amsterdam. Designed by InventDesign, photography by Dennis Bouman. Image © InventDesign

Elevator rides may offer an uplifting experience in the literal sense, but while they are indispensable in modern buildings, users face extremely compact spaces which are designed to fit effectively into buildings. Awkward looks at the floor or past other people’s faces reveal our discomfort with the elevator’s crowded anonymity. Couldn’t a more spatial experience lead to a more exciting journey? Flat screens and projections are starting to be included in elevators, but these are just the beginning of a revolution in the atmospheres created during vertical transportation.

Lift with dynamic light show at the A'DAM Tower, Amsterdam. Designed by InventDesign, photography by Dennis Bouman. Image © InventDesign Lift with dynamic light show at the A'DAM Tower, Amsterdam. Designed by InventDesign, photography by Dennis Bouman. Image © InventDesign Illuminated elevator shaft at the Atomium in Brussels, Belgium. Designed by André Waterkeyn and architects André and Jean Polak. Image © Thomas Schielke Illuminated elevator shaft with artwork at Chelsea Day School, New York. Artwork by Kenji Hirata. Image © GION + 12

How Zurich's Understated Night Lighting Strategy Enhances Local Identity

09:30 - 7 June, 2017
How Zurich's Understated Night Lighting Strategy Enhances Local Identity, Utoquai waterfront illumination, Zürich. Photo by Juliet Haller. Image © Opticalight
Utoquai waterfront illumination, Zürich. Photo by Juliet Haller. Image © Opticalight

While many cities strive for a spectacular appearance at night, Zurich follows a modest strategy for nocturnal illumination. Numerous urban centers in the world are oversaturated in the evening, with individual buildings calling for attention through bright light, harsh contrasts, or colorful façade lighting. In contrast, the Zurich master plan for lighting has focused on an overall image of sensitive light levels with white light. But this nocturnal presence far from simple design, and is instead based on detailed urban studies and precise, customized projections, where technology is discretely hidden in favor of authentic culture.

Waterfront illumination of Stadthausquai with Fraumünster Church and St. Peter Church, Zürich. Photo by Benno Tobler. Image © Stadt Zürich Lighting of Stadthausquai with Fraumünster Church and St. Peter. Photo by Juliet Haller. Image © Stadt Zürich Façade lighting with projection at Zurich Opera House at Sechseläutenplatz. Photo by Juliet Haller. Image © Stadt Zürich Night view of Rudolf Brun Bridge. Photo by Georg Aerni. Image © Stadt Zürich + 12

Fluid Luminosity: The Architectural Lighting of Zaha Hadid

06:00 - 31 March, 2017
Leeza SOHO, construction 2017, Beijing / China. Image © MIR
Leeza SOHO, construction 2017, Beijing / China. Image © MIR

Zaha Hadid's projects are remarkable not only for her innovative way of handling tangible materials but also for her imagination regarding the medium of light. Her theories of fragmentation and fluidity are now well-known design techniques which enabled her form-finding. However, her advances in using light to render her architecture have often been neglected—even though they became an essential element in revealing and interpreting her architecture. The three-decade transition from minimal light lines at her early Vitra Fire Station to the world's tallest atrium at the Leeza SOHO skyscraper, which collects an abundance of daylight, shows the remarkable development of Zaha Hadid’s luminous legacy.

Heydar Aliyev Center, 2013, Baku / Azerbaijan. Image © Hélène Binet Nordpark Railway Station, 2007, Innsbruck / Austria. Image © <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hungerburgbahn-Bergstation.JPG'>Wikimedia user Hafelekar</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en'>CC BY-SA 3.0</a> MAXXI Museum, 2009, Rome / Italy. Image © Iwan Baan Phaeno Science Center, 2005, Wolfsburg / Germany. Image © Werner Huthmacher + 13

Layers and Lighting: How Top Architects Design Fashion Stores to Turn Heads by Day and Night

09:30 - 1 February, 2017

Flagship stores excite both fashion shoppers and designers alike due to their role as visionary laboratories for the latest trends and stimulating retail experiences. Architects have developed various ways to dress haute couture stores, from distinctive icons in the day to seductive night-time images. The images accompanying this article, created by the Portuguese architect and illustrator André Chiote, help to explore the graphic potential of famous brands like Dior, Prada and Tod's. The illustrations clearly reveal the various techniques of playing with diaphanous layers, intimate views inside or the contrast of light and shadow.

Veiled in Brilliance: How Reflective Facades Have Changed Modern Architecture

09:30 - 12 October, 2016
Veiled in Brilliance: How Reflective Facades Have Changed Modern Architecture, Reflections on glass façade. Elbphilharmonie, Hamburg. Architects: Herzog & de Meuron. Image © Frank Thiel
Reflections on glass façade. Elbphilharmonie, Hamburg. Architects: Herzog & de Meuron. Image © Frank Thiel

Even as modernism promoted the transparency of glass architecture, many within the movement were conscious of the monotony of large glass facades, with even Mies van der Rohe using elements such as his trademark mullions to break up his facades. But in the years since, countless uniform structural glazing skyscrapers have emerged and bored urban citizens. In response to this, unconventional reinterpretations of facades have gained interest.

Accompanied by the belief that light and brilliance could help in creating iconic architecture and a better human world, glass and metal have been innovatively transformed to create crystalline images. As a result, the locus of meaning in architecture has shifted from the internal space-form towards the external surface.

When Droplets Create Space: A Look at Liquid Architecture

09:30 - 15 September, 2016
When Droplets Create Space: A Look at Liquid Architecture, Light in Water, 2015. Paris. Architects: DGT Architects. Photographer: <a href='http://www.takuji-shimmura.com/'>Takuji Shimmura</a>. Image © DGT Architects
Light in Water, 2015. Paris. Architects: DGT Architects. Photographer: Takuji Shimmura. Image © DGT Architects

Throughout the past century, architecture's relationship with water has developed along a variety of different paths. With his “Fallingwater” house, for example, the American master Frank Lloyd Wright confronted the dramatic flow of water with strong horizontal lines to heighten the experience of nature. Since then, architecture's use of water has become more varied and complex. A space made almost purely of water emerged with Isamu Noguchi's design at the Osaka World Expo: glistening water appeared to fall from nowhere and glowed in the dark. Later with digitalization and fluid forms as design parameters, the focus shifted towards liquid architecture made of water and light. The interpretations have ranged from architectural forms modeled after literal drops of water, like Bernhard Franken´s visionary “Bubble” for BMW, to spectacular walk-in installations made of lines of water, transformed into pixels by light.

Icelandic Pavilion. Hannover, Expo 2000. Image © Thomas Schielke Blur Building. Exposition Pavilion: Swiss Expo, Yverdon-Les-Bains, 2002. Architects: Diller Scofidio + Renfro. Image © Diller Scofidio + Renfro Olafur Eliasson: The reflective corridor, Draft to stop the free fall, 2002. (Der reflektierende Korridor, Entwurf zum Stoppen des freien Falls, 2002). Photographer: Werner J. Hannappel. Courtesy of Centre for International Light Art Unna, Germany. Image © 2002 Olafur Eliasson Luce Tempo Luogo, 2011. Milano. Architects: DGT Architects. Photographer: Daici Ano. Image © DGT Architects + 20

From Productivism to Scenography: The Relighting of Norman Foster's Hongkong and Shanghai Bank

10:30 - 6 July, 2016

Three decades ago the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank (HSBC) Headquarters by Norman Foster emerged onto the architectural seen as an exemplary product of industrial design. The open layout with its exposed steel structure generated a powerful corporate identity for the bank. But the restrained atmosphere of white architectural lighting and the lack of distinctive façade lighting has lost its attractiveness after sunset. Now the colorful and dynamic relighting presents a remarkable example of how an architectural icon has shifted from a productivist ideology towards a scenographic image. To the western observer the multicolored light language may give off a playful impression, but to the local culture the transformation evokes grandiosity.

Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters, Hong Kong, in 2015. Architects: Foster + Partners. Photographer: Simon McCartney. Image © illumination Physics Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters, Hong Kong, 1986. Architects: Foster + Partners. Lighting design: Claude and Danielle Engle Lighting. Photographer: Ian Lambot. Image © ERCO, www.erco.com Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters, Hong Kong, in 1986. Architects: Foster + Partners. Lighting design: Claude and Danielle Engle Lighting. Photographer: Ian Lambot. Image © ERCO, www.erco.com Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters, Hong Kong, in 2015. Architects: Foster + Partners. Photographer: Simon McCartney. Image © illumination Physics + 12

10 Typologies of Daylighting: From Expressive Dynamic Patterns to Diffuse Light

10:20 - 18 May, 2016
10 Typologies of Daylighting: From Expressive Dynamic Patterns to Diffuse Light, © Philippe Ruault
© Philippe Ruault

Sunlight has proven to be an excellent formgiver, with which architecture can create dynamic environments. The lighting design pioneer William M.C. Lam (1924-2012) emphasized in his book “Sunlighting as Formgiver” that the consideration of daylight is about much more than energy efficiency. Architects have now found numerous ways of implementing sunlight and the questions arises whether a coherent daylight typology could be a valuable target during the design process. However, many daylight analyses focus mainly on energy consumption.

Siobhan Rockcastle and Marilyne Andersen, though, have developed a thrilling qualitative approach at EPFL in Lausanne. Their interest was driven by the spatial and temporal diversity of daylight, introducing a matrix with 10 shades of daylight.

Frozen Architecture: From Glistening Snow Shows to Multi-Colored Ice Festivals

09:30 - 21 January, 2016
Frozen Architecture: From Glistening Snow Shows to Multi-Colored Ice Festivals, Oblong Voidspace - Jene Highstein & Steven Holl. The Snow Show, Lapland, 2003 and 2004. Image Courtesy of Fung Collaboratives, Photo Credit: Kostamoinen
Oblong Voidspace - Jene Highstein & Steven Holl. The Snow Show, Lapland, 2003 and 2004. Image Courtesy of Fung Collaboratives, Photo Credit: Kostamoinen

Winter is the perfect time to build structures with ice, a time and a technique that together offer the possibility of a pure white architecture. With a cloudy sky the condition culminates into an impressive whiteout: white architecture, the landscape and the sky dissolve into a diffuse unity without a visible horizon. If clear skies emerge a subtle contrast of warm and cool white appears with yellowish sunrays against the blue sky. However, the ice itself has striking effects as well: The surface appearance ranges from crystal clear glass to soft opaque impressions. And, for the long nights, illumination achieves an additional magical glow and extends the short daylight time.

Worldwide, snow shows, ice hotels and festivals have attracted numerous visitors with glistening snows and stunning lighting solutions. Futhermore, this frozen water strategy presents a sustainable solution par excellence, where the manufacturing and even disposal causes no harm to the environment. Read on to explore the coolest projects and events featuring architects and artists from Finland to China.

Art Suite 2016. Under the Arctic Skin by Rob Harding & Timsam Harding. Image © Icehotel, Asaf Kliger. www.icehotel.com Icehotel 25 by Anja Kilian, Sebastian Andreas Scheller, Wolfgang-A. Lüchow. Image © Icehotel, Paulina Holmgren. www.icehotel.com Oblong Voidspace - Jene Highstein & Steven Holl. The Snow Show, Lapland, 2003 and 2004. Image Courtesy of Fung Collaboratives, Photo Credit: Menne Stenros Ice Time Tunnel - Tatsuo Miyajima & Tadao Ando. The Snow Show, Lapland, 2003 and 2004. Image Courtesy of Fung Collaboratives, Photo Credit: Jeff DeBany + 7

Connected Lighting: From Ethernet to Li-Fi Internet

09:30 - 21 December, 2015
Connected Lighting: From Ethernet to Li-Fi Internet , The Edge, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Architects: PLP Architecture, OeverZaaijer; Interior architects: Fokkema & Partners. Image © Ronald Tilleman, Philips Lighting, The Edge OVG Real Estate
The Edge, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Architects: PLP Architecture, OeverZaaijer; Interior architects: Fokkema & Partners. Image © Ronald Tilleman, Philips Lighting, The Edge OVG Real Estate

How will our buildings change when your mobile device can receive huge amounts of data flowing from the luminaires above you? Not only has LED brought us a highly efficient light source, but a promising instrument for visible light communication (VLC) as well. Therefore light will not only be a medium to support vision, but it will also be an essential means of data communication. With the low energy consumption of LED one can even set up luminaires without mains cables for the power and just install Ethernet cables. Welcome to the world of digital lighting.

How Donald Judd's 100 Shimmering Aluminum Boxes Light Up the Chinati Foundation

09:30 - 24 November, 2015
How Donald Judd's 100 Shimmering Aluminum Boxes Light Up the Chinati Foundation, Donald Judd, 100 untitled works in mill aluminum, 1982-1986. 41 x 51 x 72 inches. Permanent collection, the Chinati Foundation, Marfa, Texas. Photo by Douglas Tuck, Judd Art. Image © Judd Foundation/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY
Donald Judd, 100 untitled works in mill aluminum, 1982-1986. 41 x 51 x 72 inches. Permanent collection, the Chinati Foundation, Marfa, Texas. Photo by Douglas Tuck, Judd Art. Image © Judd Foundation/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY

Completed in 1986, Donald Judd's 100 aluminum boxes offer one of the most exciting locations to study the grace of minimalism. His vision at Marfa in Texas has transformed a piece of military history into a peaceful and unique environment for art and architecture. Here, the shimmering material transcends the formal strictness of plain patterns and the narrow concepts of minimalism. The multiple reflections of light and space create an illusionary atmosphere beyond ascetic ideas.

A Brief History of Rome's Luminous Rotundas

09:30 - 22 October, 2015

With its hundreds of churches, Rome has a developed a rich history of domes. Inspired by this heritage, Jakob Straub has photographed the city's most remarkable rotundas from the ancient Pantheon up to Pier Luigi Nervi's modern sports arena. His neutral photo perspective, taken looking upwards from the center of the rotunda, opens a new view for the underlying concepts where the architecture yearns for the firmament. For Elías Torres, these “zenithal-lit” spaces constitute an important method for daylight architecture, where the exterior is also transformed into a fascinating distant reality.

Torres has analysed numerous strategies for lighting architecture effectively with daylight from above. In his book “Zenithal Light,” illustrated with an abundance of striking photos, he came to the conclusion that “Amongst the representations of the sky in the interior of architecture, the one that depicts the sun shining from above with a circular form has been the favoured one for many cultures.”

What Happens When Light Starts to Create Brand Experiences?

09:30 - 29 September, 2015
What Happens When Light Starts to Create Brand Experiences?, H&M Store in Barcelona / Estudio Mariscal. Image Courtesy of Estudio Mariscal
H&M Store in Barcelona / Estudio Mariscal. Image Courtesy of Estudio Mariscal

Global companies often exploit architectural icons to transform physical form into their desired brand reputations. To help achieve this goal, after twilight, the natural qualities of buildings have often been supplemented by architectural lighting, as the facades call unmistakeably for attention with their colorful and dynamic illumination. Representation has become the leading motivation for upgrading the lighting at headquarters and retail outlets. But when the illumination evolves into spectacular gestures, the brand identity and architecture itself starts to fade. Hence, the struggle for individuality has revived the discussion about ornament – though ornament appears now as light.

Louis Vuitton Matsuya Ginza Facade Renewal / Jun Aoki & Associates. Image © Daici Ano © Diego Opazo Allianz Arena Munich by Herzog & de Meuron, Munich, Germany. Image © Allianz Arena/B. Ducke Yas Viceroy Abu Dhabi by Asymptote, Abu Dhabi. Image © Viceroy Hotel Group + 7

Why Good Lighting Design Has Little to Do With Lux or LEDs

09:30 - 26 August, 2015
Why Good Lighting Design Has Little to Do With Lux or LEDs, Target Interactive Breezeway, Rockefeller Center, New York. Lighting design by Electroland, www.electroland.net. Image © Electroland
Target Interactive Breezeway, Rockefeller Center, New York. Lighting design by Electroland, www.electroland.net. Image © Electroland

Is there a designer who does not dream of the perfect lighting concept, which conveys a feeling of well-being and shows the architecture at its best? Unfortunately, however, it is often the case that the brief received from the client causes difficulties. All too often discussions are peppered with such terms as LEDs and lux levels,causing an unconscious shift in thinking in the direction of norms and technology instead of placing questions about requirements and lighting quality at the centre of discussion. But what exactly is quality lighting design?