Halloween is a holiday that centers on space and ritual. Most likely originating from Celtic harvest festivals, Halloween is tied to processions like trick-or-treating, as well as history and spatial stories. The holiday celebrates imagined settings, characters, and events. In similar celebrations like Mexico's Día de Muertos, people gather in unlikely places; cemeteries and graveyards become the backdrops to picnics and celebrations. There, families offer flowers and food to deceased relatives as they celebrate history and the lives of loved ones.
Aquariums are built to reshape expectation. Giving visitors a new vantage point to observe freshwater and marine life, these structures range in scale from simple exhibits to elaborate public aquaria. With a diversity of programming, they often include facilities for rehabilitation and conservation, as well as educational spaces to support learning and discovery. Today, modern aquariums offer glimpses into aquatic life both above water and below the surface.
From playful indoor pools to tranquil exterior fountains to soaring waterfalls and grand lakes of enormous proportions, architecture throughout the centuries has engaged with water in endlessly innovative ways. Sometimes serving aesthetic purposes, but just as often acting as centers of activity or promoting sustainability, water features can take countless different forms and serve multiple different purposes. Below, we synthesize a series of water features espoused by innovative contemporary architectural projects, ranging from single-family residential homes to vast commercial complexes.
Of the varying aspects of architectural and interior design, lighting is one element that can visually enhance or destroy a space. This influence stems from the wide range of artificial lighting designed for the most widely differing tasks, environments, and purposes, including internal and even external spaces such as facades and landscape projects. Think of two environments with the same dimensions and layout. Suppose that in the first, only one point of light was applied - a general, unspecified point of light in this case - while in the second a light project was performed considering the use of space and valuing certain aspects of the architectural design. Undoubtedly, the second option is a more pleasant space. In the same way, poor lighting design can ruin an environment. But how is it possible to achieve these different results?
In a previous article, we already showed how to calculate the correct light intensity required for each environment. Here, we compile a list of some of the key types of lighting systems.