British architect and Pritzker Laureate Sir James Stirling (22 April 1926 – 25 June 1992) grew up in Liverpool, one of the two industrial powerhouses of the British North West, and began his career subverting the compositional and theoretical ideas behind the Modern Movement. Citing a wide-range of influences—from Colin Rowe, a forefather of Contextualism, to Le Corbusier, and from architects of the Italian Renaissance to the Russian Constructivist movement—Stirling forged a unique set of architectural beliefs that manifest themselves in his works. Indeed his architecture, commonly described as "nonconformist," consistently caused annoyance in conventional circles. According to Rowan Moore, Stirling also "designed some of the most notoriously malfunctioning buildings of modern times." Yet, for all the "veiled accusations of incompetence," as Reyner Banham put it, Stirling produced a selection of the world's most interesting and groundbreaking buildings. Notably, the Royal Institute of British Architects' highest award, the Stirling Prize, was named after him in 1996.
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