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Local Solutions: Floating Schools in Bangladesh

© Joseph A Ferris III
© Joseph A Ferris III

In Bangladesh, where rising sea levels are having profound effects on the landscape, one nonprofit organization called Shidhulai Swanirvar Sangstha run by architect Mohammed Rezwan is fighting back by adapting, a true quality of resilience.  Rising water levels and the tumultuous climate is displacing people by the thousands; a projected 20% of Bangladesh is expected to be covered in water within twenty years.  For a country that is one of the densest populated state on the planet, this figure has disastrous consequences for a population that has limited access to fresh water, food, and medicine.  In response to these conditions, Shidhulai has focused on providing education, training and care against the odds of climate change by adapting to the altered landscape:  moving schools and community centers onto the water – on boats.

Oceanic Living: Floating City Apps / Koen Olthuis

Koen Olthuis's Dutch practice, Waterstudio, has been preparing for the environmental impacts on architecture for ten years now - building a practice on the assumption that a new solution for inhabitation is on the water.  Having lived in Amsterdam, Olthuis has intimate experience with the battle against water that people have posed for themselves.  In an interview with Jill Fehrenbacher for Inhabitat, Olthuis describes how Amsterdam was settled, what it means to have a city built upon water and the maintenance required.  Olthuis' desire to colonize the oceans is not new, but his techniques, which he touches upon in this TEDx Talk in Warwick, focus on a refined and innovative way of approaching this strategy that is progressive in that it requires far less maintenance.Koen Olthuis has built a practice on the strategy of offshore living.  While Waterstudio has produced mostly houseboats, the firm is prolific in the prospective architecture of the opportunities of living on the water.  In the TED talk, Olthuis describes a future that includes resorts on the water floating on concrete and foam foundations.  He describes ecosystems that can be plugged into a body of water via the Seatree.  The practice challenges current building strategies, especially those employed by Amsterdam- a city built on mounds within the bay.  For centuries the city has been actively pumping the water out - an expensive and energy-consuming system. Olthuis proposes rethinking this strategy and embracing the water as a boundary and opportunity for occupation.What Olthuis describes is akin to what the elevator did for architecture - adding dimension to occupied space.  He proposes customized environments with the addition and subtraction of "floating city apps" ("apps" being islands of program and buildings that can be built together to create urban-like blocks).  In terms of luxury and excess, some apps Olthuis describes are hotels, cruise lines, golf courses and resorts.  For more practical purposes that address concerns of urbanization, he describes black water filters and farms and urban environments that alleviate overcrowding and slum conditions found on coastlines.But the global problem is not necessarily overcrowding, it is the disproportionate distribution of resources and people.  How will establishing urban blocks and water-based cities create more accessibility to clean water and sanitation, nutritious food and medicine?  Is the idea to expand current urban centers that work, spreading their limits beyond the water?  In regards to New York City - one should only look at the number of vacant lots and abandoned buildings that exist in so many neighborhoods - space exists, but it is undesirable.Despite its promise, there are many environmental concerns about building on the water that we have now become more knowledgeable about - factors that were not considered when we began building and expanding urban centers into the cities we are familiar with today.  First there are the dangers to marine life - blocking out sunlight and tampering with the quality of the water which result from use of materials that may leak chemicals. Then there are issues of infrastructure, which Olthuis touches upon when he describes tunnels that connect the various apps.  We can imagine how quickly these connections can get out of hand - creating spans that criss-cross the ocean with the same density that our streets and highways do today.  Any other strategy can only be thought of as one that promotes isolation or large blocks that can be self-sufficient mini-cities on the water.It is clear that as a profession architecture is becoming much more attuned to how buildings affect the environment and this has affected how architects design - choosing passive heating and cooling systems over exclusively mechanical systems, choosing to use recycled materials as well as less environmentally detrimental ones, creating  architectural environments that promote a particular lifestyle that is more environmentally conscious.The list goes on - But what seems more precarious about the idea of colonizing the ocean is that it is one of the least explored ecosystems of our planet.  And now that we have all of this insight about what we should and should not do to our environment it seems that at this juncture we are asked to become much more aware about how we live in regards to the ecosystems we occupy.  In other words, how do we live with less of an impact on our environment?  How do we produce and dispose of our waste? How do we benefit from our environment, while contributing to it?

The Citadel: A floating apartment complex in Netherlands

The Dutch have been fighting the rising and falling tides for centuries, building dikes and pumping water out of areas that are below sea level. Now, rather than fight the water infiltrating their land, the Dutch will use it as part of a new development called ‘New Water‘, which will feature the world’s first floating apartment complex, The Citadel.

This “water-breaking” new project was designed by Koen Olthuis of Waterstudio, and developed by ONW OPP/BNG  in the Netherlands, and will use 25% less energy than a conventional building on land thanks to the use of water cooling techniques.

Seen at Inhabitat. More images after the break.