The NSA Muscle: Conversations Exploring Pioneering Projects in Digital Architecture

Screenshot. Image Courtesy of

The NSA Muscle, an interactive inflatable structure built in 2003 that responded to touch and presence by changing its shape, is the latest subject explored in the Canadian Centre for Architecture‘s series on pioneering projects of digital architecture. Joining a roster of influential names including Peter Eisenman, Frank Gehry and Chuck Hoberman, this e-book recounts a conversation between Greg Lynn and the author of the project Kas Oosterhuis of ONL []. The ‘breathing’ structure was covered by a grid of ‘muscles’ that contracted and relaxed in response to external stimulus, combining commercial pneumatics and virtual control technology in new ways to prototype an new kind of interactive architecture.

Discover the story by downloading NSA Muscle for free after the break.

Balna Budapest / ONL

Courtesy of

Architects: ONL
Location: Közraktárak Hungary
Design Team: Kas Oosterhuis, Ilona Lénárd, Gijs Joosen, Owen Slootweg, Bas Wijnbeld, Anna Nagy, Bujdosó Attila, Márku Judit, Romvári Péter, Tom Krzempek, Rafael Seemann, Paulina Gurak, Michael Gorczynski, Lidia Badarnah, Jan Gasparik, Petr Vokal
Project Manager: Bèla Káli
Project Year: 2011
Photographs: Courtesy of ONL, Romeodesign

Acoustic Barrier / ONL

Architects: ONL [Oosterhuis_Lénárd]
Location: Utrecht,
Design team: Kas Oosterhuis, Ilona Lénárd, Cas Aalbers, Sander Boer, Tom Hals, Dimitar Karanikolov, Tom Smith, Richard Lewis, Barbara Janssen, Gijs Joosen, Andrei Badescu, Maciek Swiatkowski, Rafael Seemann
Engineering: , Meijers Staalbouw BV, Pilkington Benelux BV
Client: Projectbureau Leidsche Rijn Utrecht
Production: Meijers Staalbouw BV
Project year: 2006
Budget: US $6,52 M
Photographs: ONL [Oosterhuis_Lénárd]

Ekris Showroom / ONL

Architects: ONL [Oosterhuis_Lénárd]
Location: Utrecht,
Lead Designers: Kas Oosterhuis, Ilona Lénárd
Project Architect: Gijs Joosen
Design team: Ronald Brandsma, Pim Marsman, Paulina Gurak, Rafael Seemann, Arnest Boender, Gerard van den Engel, Bas de Beer, Sanne Plomp, David Milam
Client: Ekris Utrecht BV
Project year: 2005-2007
Construction Area: Building A_5,400 sqm Building B_6,400 sqm
Budget: US $8,84 M
Photographs: [Oosterhuis_Lénárd]

construction process