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  5. Safdie Architects
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  7. AD Classics: Habitat 67 / Safdie Architects

AD Classics: Habitat 67 / Safdie Architects

AD Classics: Habitat 67 / Safdie Architects
AD Classics: Habitat 67 / Safdie Architects, Photo by Wladyslaw via <a href=''>Wikimedia</a> Commons
Photo by Wladyslaw via Wikimedia Commons

Habitat 67, designed by the Israeli-Canadian architect Moshe Safdie as the Canadian Pavilion for the World Exposition of 1967, was originally intended as an experimental solution for high-quality housing in dense urban environments. Safdie explored the possibilities of prefabricated modular units to reduce housing costs and allow for a new housing typology that could integrate the qualities of a suburban home into an urban high-rise.

Reflecting on the project’s significance in “A look back at habitat ’67” Safdie stated that “Habitat ‘67 is really two ideas in one. One is about prefabrication, and the other is about rethinking apartment-building design in the new paradigm.” [1]

Photo by Ian Korn via Used under <a href=''>Creative Commons</a> via © Jade Doskow via +17

More after the break...

The project originated as Safdie’s thesis at McGill University in 1961, titled "A Case for City Living" and described as "A Three-Dimensional Modular Building System". Two years later, when he was only 23 and interning in Louis Kahn’s studio, Safdie’s thesis advisor, Sandy Van Ginkel, invited him to submit his project for the World Exposition of 1967. Safdie developed his original theories into a complete master plan which contained shopping centers, a school, and 1000 housing units. The scheme was confirmed, despite Safdie’s young age, but was ultimately reduced by the Canadian government to only 158 residential units.  

© (2001) Canadian Architecture Collection, McGill University
© (2001) Canadian Architecture Collection, McGill University

Habitat 67 was constructed from 354 identical and completely prefabricated modules (referred to as “boxes”) stacked in various combinations and connected by steel cables. The apartments vary in shape and size, since they are formed by a group of one to four of the 600 square-foot “boxes” in different configurations. Each apartment is reached through a series of pedestrian streets and bridges, along with three vertical cores of elevators for the top floors. Service and parking facilities are separated from the tenant’s circulation routes, located on the ground floor.


The prefabrication process of the 90-ton boxes took place on-site. The basic modular shape was molded in a reinforced steel cage, which measured 38 x 17 feet. Once cured, the concrete box was transferred to an assembly line for the insertion of electrical and mechanical systems, as well as insulation and windows. To finalize the production, modular kitchens and bathrooms were installed, and finally a crane lifted each unit to its designated position.


The on-site prefabrication system should have reduced the cost of production, an integral part of Safdie’s vision for creating an affordable housing complex. Unfortunately, due to the reduction of the project’s mass scale, costs were much higher than expected. However, though Habitat failed to strike a new wave of prefabrication, it succeeded in creating a new housing typology that is both effective and site adaptable. 

© (2001) Canadian Architecture Collection, McGill University
© (2001) Canadian Architecture Collection, McGill University

By stacking concrete “boxes” in variant geometrical configurations, Safdie was able to break the traditional form of orthogonal high rises, locating each box a step back from its immediate neighbor. This ingenious method provided each apartment with a roof garden, a constant flow of fresh air and a maximum of natural light: qualities which were unprecedented for a twelve story apartment complex. Habitat 67 thus pioneered the integration of two housing typologies—the suburban garden home and the economical high-rise apartment building. 

Photo by Brian Pirie via <a href=''>Wikimedia</a> Commons
Photo by Brian Pirie via Wikimedia Commons

In the years following the world exposition, numerous Habitats were constructed around the world: in New York (1967), Puerto Rico (1968), Israel (1969), Rochester (1971) and Tehran (1976). And though most World’s Fair pavilions are disassembled upon the Fair’s completion, Habitat 67 retained its original purpose, and today continues to serve as a successful housing complex. Like other icons of large exhibitions and fairs—such as The Crystal Palace and the Eiffel Tower - Habitat 67 has thrived despite its intended shelf life and remains an emblems of its era. 

© Jade Doskow
© Jade Doskow

Not only revolutionary in its time, Habitat 67 has continued to influence architecture throughout the decades. A similar spatial scheme can be found in Ricardo Boffil’s kafka castle (1968; of course, whether Bofill influenced Safdie or visa versa is a cause for controversial debate); Habitat’s prefabrication technique was applied in Kisho Kurokawa’s Nakagin Capsule Tower in 1972; and, more recently, one might even suggest that BIG's Mountain Dwelling draws direct inspiration from Safdie’s design strategy. 

Photo by Gergely Vass via <a href=''>Wikimedia</a> Commons
Photo by Gergely Vass via Wikimedia Commons

Just for fun, check out the following bizarre music video by Leonard Cohen, shot at Habitat 67!

[1]  "A Look Back at Habitat '67 with Moshe Safdie", by Amanda Demaron via

Location to be used only as a reference. It could indicate city/country but not exact address. Cite: Gili Merin. "AD Classics: Habitat 67 / Safdie Architects" 21 Jul 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed . <>
Read comments


Abdelrahman Azmi · March 29, 2015

Sad it failed in making a low-cost housing, and it was (by the provisions of the construction) a gross area consuming project, this makes all investors run away!
In architectural vision it is unbelivalble design, but it is up to the governments to decide it will be successful or not by their provisions of the construction.

Brandon Stover · November 25, 2014

I believe that Habitat 67 is an example of modern architecuture because the complex offered a way to allow for suburban life in a denser urban enviroment with increasing population and with its use of industry trys to create high quality design at a lower cost. Lastly, the introduction of terraces and green space for each unit deals with notions of designing for better human health. These are all ideas that can be found timeand time again in modern designs.

Rachel Brien · January 09, 2015 03:47 AM

Yes!! I agree. If we aren't motivated to green our cities for environmental health (which is ridiculous in itself), we could at least do it for human health.

Trevor Gunderson · November 24, 2013

Safdie's Habitat 67 is a great example of modern architecture because of the way that is went about solving the problem of urban living, by using easily buildable materials, and easily altered shapes. I think Habitat 67 is a great example to look at for modular and mathematical based design.

Joshua Thomas · November 23, 2013

So when it comes to lookng at designs and really being able to classify or distinguish what a certain type of style of architecture it is, this building is to me, clear is a take on modernity. I see modernism in architecture as "something new". And while a community or a box was obviously not a new concept. Moshe Safdie was able to make an aggregation of the cube and through its form was able to adequately meet the standards of the project specifications. This design posed a potential solution to the problem of urban living, as well its ease of construction with prefabrication units not only embodied the characteristics of modernism but in doing so the aggregation created livable break out spaces which aided in this "habitat" design.

Scott Schafer · November 21, 2013

Moshe Safdie's design for Habitat '67 can really help elaborate upon the lax definition of "Modern Architecture". This building was the grounds for new and innovational architecture to try to help solve the problem of urban living. The use of Industrialization to help design, manufacture, and assemble the entire project was truly amazing and made this project the first of its kind. Also the aggregation of the cubic element to create such an organized chaotic scheme that can adapt to serve such a diverse culture was extraordinary and still is today.

Adam_L_309 · November 19, 2013

Safdie's Project truly a work of modernity. the use of prefabrication to the social standing of mixuse spaces to create a community. It also echos back Frampton's concept of Corporeal metaphor in its unique spaces that create itself as a true habitat, not just a structure.

Musa Eissa · August 12, 2013

Wet drawing or deriving

Michael · July 23, 2013

Such an incredible project. It is sad that most of Safdie's work has taken such an expressionist, whimsical turn for the worse, because projects like this were so strong and powerful.

sum1 · July 22, 2013

This is the ideal place to practice parkour!

larry · October 22, 2013 01:22 AM


Patrick H · July 21, 2013

One of my favorite buildings of all time... The most humane 12-story apartment building I've ever seen.

M G Winters · July 21, 2013

Habitat 67 was NOT designed as the "Canadian Pavilion" at Expo 67 in Montreal. That distinction was given to the famous upside-down pyramid which represented the host country.

Gili Merin · July 21, 2013 08:09 PM

noted. thank you.


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Photo by Wladyslaw via <a href=''>Wikimedia</a> Commons

AD经典:栖息地67 / Moshe Safdie