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New York City’s first Kahn Structure nears Completion

Aerial image courtesy Amiaga Photographers, Inc. www.amiaga.com
Aerial image courtesy Amiaga Photographers, Inc. www.amiaga.com

Nearly 40 years after Welfare Island was renamed to honor President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR), the Four Freedoms Park is nearly complete. The four-acre park, located on the southern tip of Roosevelt Island in New York City, honors the 32nd U.S. President and the four essential freedoms he believed in. The legendary architect Louis I. Kahn , FAIA (1901-1974) was commissioned to design the memorial in the early seventies and completed the design right before his unfortunate death in 1974. As New York City approached bankruptcy, the project was put on hold until March 29, 2010. Now, many are anxiously anticipating the park’s grand opening that will take place this Fall. Continue after the break to learn about the story and design of Four Freedoms Park.

President Roosevelt delivering the Four Freedoms speech. Credit: public domain Forecourt - Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC East Promenade and Monumental Stair - Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC The "Room" from the East River - Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC

Kahn, an admirer of Roosevelt, credited his ability to support his family during the early years of his practice to FDR, as housing and community planning projects part of Roosevelt’s New Deal programs made up much of his commissions. Throughout the design process, Kahn would spend much of the review meetings in reminiscing about Roosevelt and his policies.

One aspect of the Roosevelt philosophy that seemed especially powerful to Kahn was FDR’s belief that all disputes could be solved with a peaceful discussion, similarly to a family sitting around the dinner table. Kahn interpreted this concept with the creation of the “Room” – a 72-foot square plaza framed on three sides by 6-foot x 6-foot x 12-foot high granite columns, which is meant for peaceful contemplation and serves as the park’s final destination.

Louis Kahn's iconic sketch of Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park. Credit: Louis I. Kahn Collection, University of Pennsylvania and the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
Louis Kahn's iconic sketch of Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park. Credit: Louis I. Kahn Collection, University of Pennsylvania and the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission

Kahn emphasized the triangular shape of the site and employed a “forces perspectival parti” to draw and focus the visitor’s attention to the colossal bronze head of FDR, located at the threshold of the ‘Room’. As visitors walk along the gently sloping, granite-paved promenades lined by large shade trees and separated by a vast garden, their attention remains indirectly focused on that final destination space.

The "Room" from the East River - Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC
The "Room" from the East River - Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC

The bronze sculpture of FDR was created by the great American portrait sculpture, Jo Davidson, who modeled it during Roosevelt’s first term in 1933. It stands out from the white granite, allowing visitors to see it from a distance.

Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC
Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC

Engraved on the granite walls of the “Room” and throughout the site are notable quotes taken from President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s eminent Four Freedoms speech in January 6, 1941, as FDR looked forward to a world founded on these four human freedoms: freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear.

Sculpture Court - Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC
Sculpture Court - Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC

Additionally, a navel theme guides Kahn’s design as a tribute to FDR’s love and connection to the sea. The symmetrical design is based off a centerline, following the standard in naval architecture. The final scheme acts as a prow to the island’s “boat”, looking out towards the city and the waters of the North Atlantic Ocean.

President Roosevelt delivering the Four Freedoms speech. Credit: public domain
President Roosevelt delivering the Four Freedoms speech. Credit: public domain

Kahn finished the design before he unexpectedly died from a heart attack in New York’s Penn Station. However, the project was placed on hold as the Governor became Vice President of the United States and the City of New York approached bankruptcy. Thankfully, due to the efforts of family members, architects and many others, construction of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park began on March 29, 2010 – 38 years after its announcement.

Plan of Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park. Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC
Plan of Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park. Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC

The first granite foundations stones were laid in September of 2010 and the “Room” began to take shape in September 2011. This April, a stainless steel capsule containing memorabilia relating to the country’s 32nd president was buried on site. Now, as finishing touches are being completed and the Four Freedoms Park will celebrate it’s grand opening in October of this year – 40 years after the project was first initiated. This will be the first Kahn structure in New York. Four Freedoms Park, Narrated by Orson Welles:

Aerial Cityscape Rendering - Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC
Aerial Cityscape Rendering - Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC

East Promenade and Monumental Stair - Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC
East Promenade and Monumental Stair - Credit: Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park, LLC
Cite:Karissa Rosenfield. "New York City’s first Kahn Structure nears Completion" 26 Jun 2012. ArchDaily. Accesed . <http://www.archdaily.com/248156/new-york-citys-first-kahn-structure-nears-completion/>